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Monday, June 4, 2018

Antilutron - ‘Corresponding Ransom’ (1 Tim. 2:6)
If anyone should ask why the NWT uses 'corresponding ransom' when other Bibles do not, the following two comments may be helpful.

Jamieson, Fausset Brown Commentary, says for antilutron here, "The Greek implies not merely ransom, but a substituted or equivalent ransom: the Greek preposition, "anti," implying reciprocity and vicarious substitution."

And The Expositor’s Greek Testament says for antilutron at 1 Tim. 2:6, “If we are to see any special force in the [anti], we may say that it expresses that the [lutron] is equivalent in value to the thing procured by means of it.” - p. 105, Vol. 4.

Friday, May 11, 2018

Acts 5:29 - “obey” (Peitharchein)

Acts 5:29 - “obey” (Peitharchein)
Here is how peitharchein is translated at Acts 5:29 in most Bibles:

New International Version (©1984)
Peter and the other apostles replied: "We must obey God rather than men!

New Living Translation (©2007)
But Peter and the apostles replied, "We must obey God rather than any human authority.

English Standard Version (©2001)
But Peter and the apostles answered, “We must obey God rather than men.

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
But Peter and the apostles answered, "We must obey God rather than men.

King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
Then Peter and the other apostles answered and said, We ought to obey God rather than men.

International Standard Version (©2008)
But Peter and the apostles answered, "We must obey God rather than men.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English (©2010)
Shimeon answered with the Apostles and said to them, “God ought to be obeyed more than men.”

GOD'S WORD® Translation (©1995)
Peter and the other apostles answered, "We must obey God rather than people.

King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
Then Peter and the other apostles answered and said, We ought to obey God rather than men.

American King James Version
Then Peter and the other apostles answered and said, We ought to obey God rather than men.

American Standard Version
But Peter and the apostles answered and said, We must obey God rather than men.

Bible in Basic English
But Peter and the Apostles, answering, said, We have to do the orders of God, not of man.

Douay-Rheims Bible
But Peter and the apostles answering, said: We ought to obey God, rather than men.

Darby Bible Translation
But Peter answering, and the apostles, said, God must be obeyed rather than men.

English Revised Version
But Peter and the apostles answered and said, We must obey God rather than men.

Webster's Bible Translation
Then Peter and the other apostles answered and said, We ought to obey God rather than men.

Weymouth New Testament
Peter and the other Apostles replied, "We must obey God rather than man.

World English Bible
But Peter and the apostles answered, "We must obey God rather than men.

(Compare Titus 3:1)

So, some anti-NWT critics claim that the NWT has falsely added “as ruler” to this scripture. But let’s examine what other authorities have to say about the word in question (peitharchein).

We must (dei). Moral necessity left them no choice. They stood precisely where Peter and John were when before the Sanhedrin before (Acts 4:20). Obey (peitharchein). Old verb from peithomai and arche, to obey a ruler. Only by Luke and Paul in the N.T.” - Robertson’s Word Pictures in the New Testament, p. 65, vol. 3.

Peitharchein: “to obey (a ruler or a superior)” p. 497, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, Thayer, Baker Book House, 1977.

“The term ‘obey’ (peithomai) is used twice in [Acts 5] verses 36 and 37; it picks up the related verb ‘obey a leader’ (peitharchein) in verses 29 and 32.” - Note for Acts 5:37 in Sacra Pagina, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 100, the Liturgical Press, 1992.

(All emphasis above was added.)

New World Translation:
“In answer Peter and the [other] apostles said: ‘We must obey God as ruler rather than men.’ ” [underlining added]


Friday, October 21, 2016

Trinity 'Proof' - Texts' Refuted

Many who believe that Jesus is God or in the Trinity rely only on a few selected, so-called 'proof-texts'.

The following links lead to research showing how the most frequently used so-called 'Proof Texts' are not proof of the Trinity in any way.

1. > JW.ORG Links to Information:
2. > Gen. 1:26
3. > Gen. 19:24
4. > Isa. 6:3 ("Holy, Holy, Holy")
5. > Isa. 9:6
6. > Isa. 42:8/Heb. 1:3
7. > Isa. 43:11 (Savior)
8. > Isa. 44:6 ("First and the Last")
9. > Isa. 48:16
10 > Micah 5:2
11 > Habakkuk 1:12
12 > Zechariah 12:10
13 > Matt. 1:23 ("Immanuel") - NAME
14 > Matt. 12:32
15 > Matt. 28:19
16 > Luke 12:10
17 > John 1:1
18 > John 2:19
19 > John 5:18
20 > John 5:23
21 > John 8:58 (I AM)
22 > John 10:17-18
23 > John 10:30
24 > John 10:33 ("a god" or "God"?)
25 > John 14:7-9
26 > John 14:14
27 > John 16:7-15
28 > John 20:28 (My God)
29 > Acts 5:3, 4
30 > Acts 10:38
31 > Acts 13:2
32 > Acts 20:28
33 > Acts 28:25
34 > Rom. 8:27
35 > Rom. 9:5
36 > 1 Cor. 12:11
37 > 2 Cor. 4:4
38 > 2 Cor. 13:14
39 > Eph. 4:30
40 > Eph. 5:5 ("Sharp's Rule")
41 > Phil. 2:5, 6
42 > Col. 1:16
43 > Col. 2:9
44 > 1 Tim. 3:16
45 > Heb. 1:6
46 > Heb. 1:8 (“Thy Throne, O God”)
47 > 2 Pet. 3:18  (Savior)
48 > 1 John 5:7
49 > 1 John 5:20
50 > Rev. 1:8
51 > Rev. 1:17 ("First and the Last")
52 > Rev. 5:6 and Rev. 5:13 ("Throne")
53 > Rev. 22:1 (Throne)
54 > Rev. 22:13 (Alpha / Omega)

Wednesday, August 3, 2016

Theon’ found in Exodus (Septuagint)

Ex 1:17; Ex 1:21 ; Ex 2:23; Ex 3:11; Ex 3:13; Ex 4:16; Ex 7:1; Ex 8:25; Ex 8:26; Ex 10:17; Ex 10:18; Ex 18:19; Ex 19:8; Ex 19:18; Ex 19:21; Ex 19:23; Ex 19:24; Ex 24:2; Ex 32:30.

Of the 19 uses of theon in Exodus of the Greek Septuagint, only Exodus 7:1 does not use the definite article. Furthermore it is a D.O. which follows the verb. [See the THEON study - ]

7:1 kai eipen kurioV proV mwushn legwn idou dedwka se qeon faraw kai aarwn o adelfoV sou estai sou profhthV

So how is theon to be understood at Exodus 7:1?


Exodus 7:1 Commentaries

The Adam Clarke Commentary:

Verse 1. I have made thee a god

The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible:

I have made thee a god to Pharaoh;
not a god by nature, but made so; he was so by commission and office, clothed with power and authority from God to act under him in all things he should direct; not for ever, as angels are gods, but for a time; not in an ordinary way, as magistrates are gods, but in an extraordinary manner; and not to any other but to Pharaoh, being an ambassador of God to him,

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible 
Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown

I have made thee a god--"made," that is, set, appointed; "a god"; that is, he was to act in this business as God's representative, to act and speak in His name and to perform things beyond the ordinary course of nature. The Orientals familiarly say of a man who is eminently great or wise, "he is a god" among men.


Matthew Henry Complete Commentary on the Whole Bible

Here, I. God encourages Moses to go to Pharaoh, and at last silences all his discouragements. 1. He clothes him with great power and authority (Exodus 7:1): I have made thee a god to Pharaoh; that is, my representative in this affair, as magistrates are called gods, because they are God's vicegerents.

Joseph Benson’s Commentary
A god to Pharaoh — That is, my representative in this affair, as magistrates are called gods, because they are God’s vicegerents. He was authorized to speak and act in God’s name, and endued with a divine power, to do that which is above the ordinary course of nature.


Arno Gaebelein's Annotated Bible
Twice Jehovah said that Moses should be a god. A god to Aaron (Ex. 4:16) and a god to Pharaoh (Exodus 7:1). He received divine authority and power over Pharaoh….


Geneva Study Bible

Ex. 7:1
And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a[*]god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.
(*) I have given you power and authority to speak in my name and to execute my judgments on him.


The Popular Commentary by Paul E. Kretzmann [Lutheran]

And the Lord said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh, He had given him authority as His ambassador, with power to carry out His judgments


Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament
At the same time Moses was also made a god to Pharaoh; i.e., he was promised divine authority and power over Pharaoh,


Some trinitarian-translated Bibles which translate Exodus 7:1 as ‘a god’:


American KJV

21st Century KJV



MKJV and LITV (Green)



The Message











Tuesday, April 5, 2016

KURIE - All NT Uses of "Lord" in Address

All uses of the vocative (noun of address) Kurie (KURIE)

To be used with the “My God” study of John 20:28


All uses of kurie (vocative form or noun of address for kurios: "lord, sir, master.") - 120 in NT.

There are No undisputed uses of the nominative form (kurios) as a noun of address in the NT.

Mt 7:21

"Not everyone who says to Me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter.

Ou pav o legwn (5723) moi, Kurie kurie, eiseleusetai (5695) eiv thn basileian twn ouranwn, all' o poiwn (5723) to qelhma tou patrov mou tou en toiv ouranoiv.

Mt 7:22
"Many will say to Me on that day, 'Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles ?'

polloi erousin (5692) moi en ekeinh| th| hmera|, Kurie kurie, ou tw| sw| onomati eprofhteusamen, (5656) kai tw| sw| onomati daimonia ecebalomen, kai tw| sw| onomati dunameiv pollav epoihsamen? (5656)

Mt 8:2
And a leper came to Him and bowed down before Him, and said, "Lord, if You are willing, You can make me clean."

kai idou (5628) leprov proselqwn (5631) prosekunei (5707) autw| legwn, (5723) Kurie, ean qelh|v (5725) dunasai (5736) me kaqarisai. (5658)

Mt 8:6; Mt 8:8; Mt 8:21; Mt 8:25; Mt 9:28; Mt 11:25; Mt 13:27; Mt 14:28 Mt 14:30;

Mt 15:22; Mt 15:25; Mt 15:27; Mt 16:22; Mt 17:4; Mt 17:15; Mt 18:21; Mt 20:30;

Mt 20:31; Mt 20:33; Mt 21:30; Mt 25:11; Mt 25:20; Mt 25:22; Mt 25:24;

Mt 25:37; Mt 25:44; Mt 26:22; Mt 27:63;

Mr 7:28;

Lu 5:8; Lu 5:12; Lu 6:46; Lu 7:6; Lu 9:54; Lu 9:59; Lu 9:61; Lu 10:17; Lu 10:21; Lu 10:40;

Lu 11:1; Lu 12:41; Lu 13:8; Lu 13:23; Lu 13:25; Lu 14:22; Lu 17:37; Lu 18:41; Lu 19:8;

Lu 19:16; Lu 19:18; Lu 19:20; Lu 19:25; Lu 22:33; Lu 22:38; Lu 22:49;

Joh 4:11; Joh 4:15; Joh 4:19; Joh 4:49; Joh 5:7; Joh 6:34; Joh 6:68; Joh 8:11; Joh 9:36; Joh 9:38; Joh 11:3; Joh 11:12; Joh 11:21; Joh 11:27; Joh 11:32; Joh 11:34; Joh 11:39; Joh 12:21; Joh 12:38; Joh 13:6; Joh 13:9; Joh 13:25; Joh 13:36; Joh 13:37; Joh 14:5;

Joh 14:8; Joh 14:22; Joh 20:15; Joh 21:15; Joh 21:16; Joh 21:17; Joh 21:20; Joh 21:21;

Ac 1:6; Ac 1:24; Ac 4:29; Ac 7:59; Ac 7:60; Ac 9:5; Ac 9:10; Ac 9:13; Ac 10:4; Ac 10:14;

Ac 11:8; Ac 22:8; Ac 22:10; Ac 22:19; Ac 26:15;

Ro 10:16; Ro 11:3;

Heb 1:10

Re 7:14; Re 11:17; Re 15:3; Re 15:4; Re 16:7; Re 22:20


I have found a facsimile of Codex Sinaiticus. It does read κυριε ό κυριος και ό θεος at Rev. 4:11, whereas Codex Alexandrinus does not use kurie at all, but reads exactly as the Westcott and Hort, UBS, and Nestle texts: “Worthy are you, the lord (kurios) and the god (theos) of us, to receive….”

The interpretation of Rev. 4:11, at best, is a disputed one. It seems likely that the use of the nominative kurios there is that of an appositive rather than a noun of address. It is equivalent to “Worthy is He, the lord and the God of us, to receive….” In other words, “the Lord and God of us” is simply an appositive which further identifies a word (in this case the pronoun “he” - or “you” in 4:11) preceding it.

Examples of vocative with vocative appositive

Matt. 11:25; Lu. 10:21; Rev. 15:3; 16:7; 22:20

Examples of vocative with nominative appositive:

Matt. 15:22; 20:30; 20:31; Rev. 11:17

Since all modern texts (including the Majority/Byzantine text) do not use kurie at Rev. 4:11, I believe the understanding of ho kurios kai ho theos is that of an appositive - not nouns of address. Even if Sinaiticus is correct here, we still have all uses of “Lord” used in address as kurie.

Therefore, Thomas' statement at John 20:28 which uses the nominative kurios is simply not being addressed to anyone, but must be understood differently.  See the MYGOD study. - - -