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Tuesday, April 5, 2016

KURIE - All NT Uses of "Lord" in Address

All uses of the vocative (noun of address) Kurie (KURIE)

To be used with the “My God” study of John 20:28


All uses of kurie (vocative form or noun of address for kurios: "lord, sir, master.") - 120 in NT.

There are No undisputed uses of the nominative form (kurios) as a noun of address in the NT.

Mt 7:21

"Not everyone who says to Me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter.

Ou pav o legwn (5723) moi, Kurie kurie, eiseleusetai (5695) eiv thn basileian twn ouranwn, all' o poiwn (5723) to qelhma tou patrov mou tou en toiv ouranoiv.

Mt 7:22
"Many will say to Me on that day, 'Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles ?'

polloi erousin (5692) moi en ekeinh| th| hmera|, Kurie kurie, ou tw| sw| onomati eprofhteusamen, (5656) kai tw| sw| onomati daimonia ecebalomen, kai tw| sw| onomati dunameiv pollav epoihsamen? (5656)

Mt 8:2
And a leper came to Him and bowed down before Him, and said, "Lord, if You are willing, You can make me clean."

kai idou (5628) leprov proselqwn (5631) prosekunei (5707) autw| legwn, (5723) Kurie, ean qelh|v (5725) dunasai (5736) me kaqarisai. (5658)

Mt 8:6; Mt 8:8; Mt 8:21; Mt 8:25; Mt 9:28; Mt 11:25; Mt 13:27; Mt 14:28 Mt 14:30;

Mt 15:22; Mt 15:25; Mt 15:27; Mt 16:22; Mt 17:4; Mt 17:15; Mt 18:21; Mt 20:30;

Mt 20:31; Mt 20:33; Mt 21:30; Mt 25:11; Mt 25:20; Mt 25:22; Mt 25:24;

Mt 25:37; Mt 25:44; Mt 26:22; Mt 27:63;

Mr 7:28;

Lu 5:8; Lu 5:12; Lu 6:46; Lu 7:6; Lu 9:54; Lu 9:59; Lu 9:61; Lu 10:17; Lu 10:21; Lu 10:40;

Lu 11:1; Lu 12:41; Lu 13:8; Lu 13:23; Lu 13:25; Lu 14:22; Lu 17:37; Lu 18:41; Lu 19:8;

Lu 19:16; Lu 19:18; Lu 19:20; Lu 19:25; Lu 22:33; Lu 22:38; Lu 22:49;

Joh 4:11; Joh 4:15; Joh 4:19; Joh 4:49; Joh 5:7; Joh 6:34; Joh 6:68; Joh 8:11; Joh 9:36; Joh 9:38; Joh 11:3; Joh 11:12; Joh 11:21; Joh 11:27; Joh 11:32; Joh 11:34; Joh 11:39; Joh 12:21; Joh 12:38; Joh 13:6; Joh 13:9; Joh 13:25; Joh 13:36; Joh 13:37; Joh 14:5;

Joh 14:8; Joh 14:22; Joh 20:15; Joh 21:15; Joh 21:16; Joh 21:17; Joh 21:20; Joh 21:21;

Ac 1:6; Ac 1:24; Ac 4:29; Ac 7:59; Ac 7:60; Ac 9:5; Ac 9:10; Ac 9:13; Ac 10:4; Ac 10:14;

Ac 11:8; Ac 22:8; Ac 22:10; Ac 22:19; Ac 26:15;

Ro 10:16; Ro 11:3;

Heb 1:10

Re 7:14; Re 11:17; Re 15:3; Re 15:4; Re 16:7; Re 22:20


I have found a facsimile of Codex Sinaiticus. It does read κυριε ό κυριος και ό θεος at Rev. 4:11, whereas Codex Alexandrinus does not use kurie at all, but reads exactly as the Westcott and Hort, UBS, and Nestle texts: “Worthy are you, the lord (kurios) and the god (theos) of us, to receive….”

The interpretation of Rev. 4:11, at best, is a disputed one. It seems likely that the use of the nominative kurios there is that of an appositive rather than a noun of address. It is equivalent to “Worthy is He, the lord and the God of us, to receive….” In other words, “the Lord and God of us” is simply an appositive which further identifies a word (in this case the pronoun “he” - or “you” in 4:11) preceding it.

Examples of vocative with vocative appositive

Matt. 11:25; Lu. 10:21; Rev. 15:3; 16:7; 22:20

Examples of vocative with nominative appositive:

Matt. 15:22; 20:30; 20:31; Rev. 11:17

Since all modern texts (including the Majority/Byzantine text) do not use kurie at Rev. 4:11, I believe the understanding of ho kurios kai ho theos is that of an appositive - not nouns of address. Even if Sinaiticus is correct here, we still have all uses of “Lord” used in address as kurie.

Therefore, Thomas' statement at John 20:28 which uses the nominative kurios is simply not being addressed to anyone, but must be understood differently.  See the MYGOD study. - - -





cornyh said...

Very interesting studies, dear brothers in the faith. Just for sake of clarifying: Are there cases, disputed or not, where kyrios is used in nominative case when being adressed?

tigger2 said...

Please see the My God study (especially end note #5) for the only 2 possible exceptions Trinitarians have found.

cornyh said...

Thanks. I tried to do a search on the uses of "thee" theos in the vocative case, only found Matthew 27:46. I think I read somewhere that in koiné Greek the use of the vocative case was not very consistent, that many times, persons where adressed in the nominative case instead. Is this correct? If the contrary is the case, John 20:28 can be definitely dismissed as trinitarian proof.

tigger2 said...

Yes, there are only a few words which consistently use the vocative case in the NT. I have examined a few in the above study.

Unfortunately, thee (vocative of theos) is one which is rarely used.

Fortunately kurie (vocative of kurios, 'Lord' in English) is one that is ALWAYS used when ADDRESSING as "Lord." The proof is provided in the above study.

Timitrius said...

What about cases in the LXX? Isn't John 20:28 said to be a quote from Psalms applied to Jesus (by Trinitarians)?

tigger2 said...

I'm not aware of any such quote. If you know of one, please let us know.

Timitrius said...

Psalm 35:23 is the usually cited example. The LXX Greek is:

εξεγέρθητι ΚΎΡΙΕ και πρόσχες τη κρίσει μου Ο ΘΕΌΣ ΜΟΥ ΚΑΙ Ο ΚΥΡΙΌΣ ΜΟΥ εις την δίκην μου
Awake, O Lord, and attend to my judgment, even to my cause, MY GOD AND MY LORD

tigger2 said...

Interesting comment. I'll answer it in the text of my original study: My God-John 20:28.

Omar Meza Solano said...

What do you think about Mark 15:34 and Matthew 27:46?

For example, in Matthew 27:46, Θεέ μου is used with the vocative address and in Mark 15:34 ὁ θεός μου is used in both nominative no matter the case it is an address to the Father, I think it would be an exception to the use of ὁ θεός μου of John 20:28

What's your opinion about it?

Omar Meza Solano said...

I would also like to know what you think about Psalm 35:23 in the LXX

"εξεγε̇ρθητι κυ̇ριε και προ̇σχες τη κρι̇σει μου ο θεο̇ς μου και ο κυριο̇ς μου εις την δι̇κην μου"

How would it be explained that here κυ̇ριε and κυριο̇ς is used in direct treatment? I think it would be an exception

tigger2 said...

In the 'My God' study it was explained that theos is often used in the nominative case in the NT. But the vocative kurie is always used for 'lord' in address.

As for the use of 'Lord' in address in the Septuagint, I see only this one use of kurios in what appears to be an address: Ps 35:23.

If this is truly in address, then it appears to be an exception. However, the other seven uses of 'Lord' in address in this same Psalm 35 are kurie! (see end note #5 in the 'My God' study.)

If this is the only exception in the Septuagint it may simply be a copyists' error. If there a number of others in the Septuagint, I still believe that the NT uses kurie only when 'Lord' is in address.