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Sunday, September 27, 2009

DEF - Part 3 (Appendix)

The "Definite" John 1:1 (part 3 of 4 Appendix)    (View Entire File)


APPENDIX
In the following lists if the predicate noun (p.n.) has no article, it has "an." (anarthrous) written before it. "Art." (articular) means the article ("the") is with it (making it an improper example for a John 1:1c - type rule, of course). Other improper examples have "prep.," "abstract," "numeral," etc. written after them.

"Prep." indicates that the p.n. has a phrase joined to it (prepositional), e.g., 'son of man'; 'slave to me', etc. (see end note #8); "Abstract #": the p.n. is abstract and/or an indeterminate amount (Today these are often called 'non-count nouns'). "No subject" means the subject is clearly understood only by the verb form used. "Participle"[14] means the subject is not present but only imperfectly identified by a participle ("having," "saying," etc.).

All Predicate Nouns Found in John’s Writings - Single Column
I've had to rewrite my original 2 column list because it just jumbled up when I tried to post it.  The following is, then, a recent addition in single column:

 John

an. 1:1

art. 1:4 - prep.

art. 1:8

an. 1:12 - prep.

an. 1:14 - plural (AMOUNT)

art. 1:15

art. 1:19 - prep.

art. 1:20

art. 1:21

an. 1:23 - prep. - NO VERB

art. 1:25

art. 1:33 - participle (p.n.)

art. 1:34 - prep.

an. 1:41 (?)

art. 1:49 (a) - prep.

an. 1:49 (b) - prep.

an. 2:9 - accusative, not p.n.

an. 3:6 (a) - AMOUNT/part. (s)

an. 3:6 (b) -abstract +/part. (s)

art. 3:10 - prep.

art. 3:19

art. 3:28

an. 3:29 - participle (s)

an. 4:9 (a)

an. 4:9 (b) - adj.?

an. 4:14 - prep.

an. 4:18 - prep.

an. 4:19

an. 4:24 – abstract (?) - NO VERB

art. 4:29

art. 4:37 (a) - participle (p.n.)

art. 4:37 (b) - participle (p.n.)

art. 4:42 - prep.

an. 5:9 - “time/season”

an. 5:10 - “time/season”

art. 5:12

art. 5:15 - participle (p.n.)

an. 5:27 - prep.

art. 5:35

art. 6:14 (the prophet)

art. 6:33 - participle (p.n.)

art. 6:35 - prep.

art. 6:39 - prep.

art. 6:40 - prep.

art. 6:41

art. 6:48 - prep.

art. 6:50

art. 6:51 (a)

art. 6:51 (b) - prep.

an. 6:55 (a) - plural (AMOUNT)

an. 6:55 (b) - plural (AMOUNT)

art. 6:58

an. 6:63a - abstract/part. (p.n)

an. 6:63b - abstract

art. 6:64 (a) - part. (p.n.)

art. 6:64 (b) - part. (p.n.)

art. 6:69 - prep.

an. 6:70

art. 7:26

art. 7:36

art. 7:40

art. 7:41

art. 8:12 - prep.

art. 8:18 - part. (p.n.)

an. 8:31 - prep.

an. 8:33 - prep.

an. 8:34 - prep.

an. 8:37 - prep.

art. 8:39a - prep. - RSV, NIV

an. 8:39b - prep.

an. 8:42 - prep.

an. 8:44 (a)

an. 8:44 (b) - no subject

an. 8:48

an. 8:54 (a) - abstract

an. 8:54 (b) - prep.

an. 8:55

an. 9:5 - prep.

an. 9:8 (a) - no subject

art. 9:8 (b) - part. (p.n.)

an. 9:14 - “time/season”

an. 9:17 - no subject

art. 9:19 - prep.

art. 9:20 - prep.

an. 9:24

an. 9:25 - no subject

an. 9:27 - prep.

an. 9:28 (a) - prep.

an. 9:28 (b) - prep.

an. 10:1

an. 10:2 - prep./part. (s)

art. 10:7 - prep.

an. 10:8 - plural

art. 10:9

art. 10:11

an. 10:12 - no subject

an. 10:13 - no subject

art. 10:14

an. 10:16 - numeral

art. 10:21 - prep.

an. 10:22 (or :23) - “time/season”

art. 10:24

an. 10:33

an. 10:34 - plural

an. 10:36 - prep.

art. 11:25

art. 11:27

an. 11:38

an. 11:49 - prep.

an. 11:51 - prep.

an. 12:6 - no subject

an. 12:36 - prep.

an. 12:50 - abstract

an. 13:35 - prep. (poss. pronoun)

art. 14:6 - abstract (?)

art. 15:1 (a)

art. 15:1 (b)

art. 15:5 (a)

art. 15:5 (b) - NO VERB

an. 15:8 - prep.

art. 15:12 - possessive

an. 15:14 - prep.

art. 17:3 - abstract

an. 17:17 - abstract

an. 18:13 (a) - prep.

an. 18:13 (b) - prep.

art. 18:14 - part. (p.n.)

an. 18:26 - prep.

art. 18:33 - prep.

an. 18:35

an. 18:37 (a)

an. 18:37 (b) - no subject

an. 18:38 - abstract

an. 18:40

an. 19:12 - prep.

an. 19:14 - prep.

an. 19:21 - prep.

an. 19:31 - “time/season”

an. 19:38 - prep.

art. 20:15

art. 20:31

art. 21:7 (a)

art. 21:7 (b)

art. 21:12

art. 21:20

art. 21:24

 



--------------------------------------------------------------------

1 John

art. 1:5 (a)

an. 1:5 (b) - abstract +

an. 2:2 - prep.

an. 2:4 - participle (s)

an. 2:18 (a) - “time/season”

an. 2:18 (b) - “time/season”

art. 2:22 (a)

art. 2:22 (b)

art. 2:22 (c)

art. 2:25

an. 2:27 - no subject

an. 3:2 - prep.

art. 3:4 - abstract

art. 3:11

an. 3:15 - participle (s)

art. 3:23 - prep.

art. 4:3 - prep.

an. 4:8 - abstract +

art. 4:15 - prep.

an. 4:16 - abstract +

an. 4:20 - no subject

art. 5:1

art. 5:3 - prep.

art. 5:4

art. 5:5 (a)

art. 5:5 (b) - prep.

art. 5:6 (a) - part. (p.n.)

art. 5:6 (b) - part. (p.n.)

art. 5:6 (c) - abstract

art. 5:9 - prep.

art. 5:11

art. 5:14

an. 5:17 - abstract +

art. 5:20

 



------------------------------------------------------------------------

2 John

art. :6 (a) - abstract

art. :6 (b)

art. :7



----------------------------------------------------------------------------      


 

Revelation

art. 1:8

art. 1:17

an. 1:20 (a) - prep.

an. 1:20 (b) - numeral

an. 2:9 - accusative, not p.n.

art. 2:23 - part. (p.n.)

an. 3:9 - accusative, not p.n.

art. 4:5 - prep. - numeral

art. 5:6 - prep. - numeral

art. 5:8 - prep.

an. 8:8 - plural (AMOUNT)

art. 11:4

an. 13:18 - prep.

an. 14:4 - no subject/plural

an. 16:3 - plural (AMOUNT)

an. 16:4 - plural (AMOUNT)

an. 16:14 - prep.

an. 17:9 - numeral

an. 17:10 - numeral

an. 17:11 - numeral

an. 17:12 - numeral

an. 17:14 - prep.

an. 17:15 - plural

art. 17:18

an. 18:2 - prep.

an. 18:7 - no subject

art. 19:8 - prep.

art. 19:9 - prep.

an. 19:10 (a) - prep.

art. 19:10 (b) - prep.

an. 20:2

art. 20:5 - numeral

an. 20:6 - prep.

art. 20:14 - numeral

an. 21:3 - prep.

art. 21:6

an. 21:7 (a) - prep.

an. 21:7 (b) - prep.

art. 21:8 - numeral

an. 21:21 - no verb

an. 21:22 - prep.

art. 21:23 - prep. - NO VERB

an. 22:9 - prep.

art. 22:13 - NO VERB

art. 22:16 - prep.

  -------------------------------------------------------------------

an.” - before the verse number means “anarthrous” or “without a definite article” in

the NT Greek.



“art.” - before the verse number means “articular” or “with a definite article” in the NT Greek.

 



All Verses by John Where the Predicate Noun Precedes Its Verb

an. Jn 1:1 (verse under study)
an. John 1:12 - prep.
an. Jn 1:14 - plural (amount)
art. Jn 1:21 ("the Prophet" - NASB)
an. Jn 1:49 (b) - prep.
an. Jn 2:9 - accusative, not p.n
an. Jn 3:6 (a) - plural (amount)
an. Jn 3:6 (b) - abstract #
an. Jn 3:29 - participle

-an. Jn 4:9 (a)
an. Jn 4:9 (b) (adj.?)

#an. Jn 4:19
an. Jn 4:24 - abstr. # - NO VERB
an. Jn 5:27 - prep.
art. Jn 6:51 (b) - prep.
an. Jn 6:63 - abstract

-an. Jn 6:70
an. Jn 8:31 - prep.
an. Jn 8:33 - prep.
an. Jn 8:34 - prep.
an. Jn 8:37 - prep.
an. Jn 8:39 - prep.
an. Jn 8:42 - prep.
an. Jn 8:44 (a)
an. Jn 8:44 (b) - no subject

#an. Jn 8:48
an. Jn 8:54 (a) - abstract
an. Jn 8:54 (b) - prep.
an. Jn 9:5 - prep
an. Jn 9:8 (a) - no subject
an. Jn 9:17 - no subject

-an. Jn 9:24
an. Jn 9:25 - no subject
an. Jn 9:27 - prep.
an. Jn 9:28 (a) - prep.

-an. Jn 10:1
an. Jn 10:2 - prep.
an. Jn 10:8 - plural
an. Jn 10:13 - no subject
art. Jn 10:21 - prep.

-an. Jn 10:33
an. Jn 10:34 - plural
an. Jn 10:36 - prep.
an. Jn 11:49 - prep.
an. Jn 11:51 - prep.
an. Jn 12:6 - prep
an. Jn 12:36 - prep.
an. Jn 12:50 - abstract
an. Jn 13:35 - (poss. pronoun)
art. Jn 15:1 (b)
an. Jn 15:14 - prep.
an. Jn 17:17 - abstract
an. Jn 18:26 - prep.

-an. Jn 18:35
#an. Jn 18:37 (a)
?an. Jn 18:37 (b) - no subject (except in TR and in 1991 Byzantine text)
an. Jn 19:21 - prep.an.
art. Jn 20:15
art. Jn 21:7 (a)
art. Jn 21:7 (b)
art. Jn 21:12

an. 1 Jn 1:5 (b) - abstract #
an. 1 Jn 2:2 - prep.
an. 1 Jn 2:4 - participle
an. 1 Jn 3:2 - prep.
an. 1 Jn 3:15 - participle
an. 1 Jn 4:8 - abstract
an. 1 Jn 4:16 - abstract
an. 1 Jn 4:20 - no subject
an. 1 Jn 5:17 - abstract

art. 2 Jn :6 (b)

an. Rev. 1:20 (a) - prep.
an. Rev. 1:20 (b) - numeral
an. Rev. 2:9 - accusative, not p.n.
an. Rev. 3:9 - accusative, not p.n.
an. Rev. 13:18 - prep.
an. Rev. 14:4 - no subject/plural
an. Rev. 17:9 - numeral
an. Rev. 17:10 - numeral
an. Rev. 17:11 - numeral
an. Rev. 17:12 - numeral
an. Rev. 17:14 - prep.
an. Rev. 17:15 - plural
an. Rev. 18:7 - no subject
art. Rev. 19:8 - prep.
art. Rev. 19:9 - prep.
an. Rev. 19:10 (a) - prep.
art. Rev. 20:14 - numeral
an. Rev. 21:3 - prep.
an. Rev. 21:22 - prep.
art. Rev. 21:23 - prep. - NO VERB
an. Rev. 22:9 - prep.

_______________________

91 total (excluding John 1:1c)

...........................................................

All Proper Examples That Are Parallel to John 1:1c in John's Writings 


The 3 (or 4 for translations using the Received Text or the 1991 Byzantine text) closest examples to Jn 1:1c have the anarthrous predicate noun before the verb and the subject after the verb. These 3 (or 4) proper examples are shown above with a numeral sign (#) before them. And they also exclude personal names, abstract nouns, numerals, prepositional constructions (prep.), "time/season" nouns, clauses in which the subject is missing [but understood by the verb], clauses in which the subject is "represented" by a participle ["having," "saying," "hating," etc.], plurals [especially plural/amount: 'blood,' 'wine,' 'honey,' 'flesh,' 'fat,' etc.].

Here, then, are all the proper examples (truly comparable to Jn 1:1c) from the writings of John (W and H text)[15] for an honest examination of "Colwell's Rule" (or any related rules, including Harner's "qualitative" rule, concerning the simple, unmodified anarthrous predicate noun coming before the verb):


H,W 1. John 4:19 - ("a prophet") - all Bible translations

H,W  2. John 8:48 - ("a Samaritan") - all translations

 H,W  3. John 18:37 (a) - ("a king") - all

[H,W  4. John 18:37 (b) - ("a king") - in the Received Text (TR) and in 1991 Byzantine Text]

H = Also found in Harner's list of "Colwell Constructions"

W = Also found in Wallace's list of "Colwell Constructions"
 
These are all indefinite nouns. All modern trinitarian Bible translations I have examined render them as indefinite!

If we wish to supply more examples, we must include some which are less perfect than these three (or four). The best we can do is to include all those constructions (Westcott and Hort text) which comply with the other qualifications above but which, unlike Jn 1:1c, have the subject before the verb also. Since trinitarian scholars themselves include such examples, they should not object if we also include all such examples.

When we add those constructions to our list, we have:

H    1. John 4:9 (a) - indefinite ("a Jew") - all translations

H,W 2. John 4:19 - indefinite ("a prophet") - all

H,W 3. John 6:70 [16] - indefinite ("a devil"/"a slanderer") - all
 
H,W 4. John 8:44 (a) indefinite ("a manslayer") - all

H,W 5. John 8:48 - indefinite ("a Samaritan") - all

H,W 6. John 9:24 - indefinite ("a sinner") - all

H,W 7. John 10:1 - indefinite ("a thief and a plunderer") - all

H,W 8. John 10:33 - indefinite ("a man") - all

H,W 9. John 18:35 - indefinite ("a Jew") - all

H,W 10. John 18:37 (a) - indefinite ("a king") - all

[H,W 11. John 18:37 (b) - indefinite ("a king") - in Received Text and in 1991 Byzantine text]


These are all indefinite nouns (not definite, not "qualitative"). All trinitarian Bible translations I have examined render them as indefinite! We should have enough examples to satisfy the most critical (but honest) scholar now. (And I wouldn't strongly resist the use of those "no subject" examples above which clearly intend the subject as being a certain pronoun included with the verb, e.g., "[he] is," which would then bring our total of proper examples to nearly 20.)
 
In that case we would have:

H 1. John 4:9 (a) - indefinite (“a Jew”) - all translations

H,W 2. John 4:19 - indefinite (“a prophet”) - all


H,W 3. John 6:70 - indefinite (“a devil”/“a slanderer”) - all [16]

H,W 4. John 8:44 (a) - indefinite (“a murderer”/“a manslayer”) - all



H,W 5. John 8:48 - indefinite (“a Samaritan”) - all

H,W 6. John 9:24 - indefinite (“a sinner”) - all

H,W 7. John 10:1 - indefinite (“a thief and a plunderer”) - all

H,W 8. John 10:33 - indefinite (“a man”) - all

H,W 9. John 18:35 - indefinite (“a Jew”) - all

H,W 10 John 18:37 (a) - indefinite (“a king”) - all

[H,W 11. John 18:37 (b) - indefinite (“a king”) - in Received Text and in 1991 Byzantine Text]

………………………………................................


 
H,W 12. Jn 8:44 (b) - indefinite (“a liar”) - all

H,W 13. Jn 9:8 (a) - indefinite (“a beggar”) - all

H,W 14. Jn 9:17 - indefinite (“a prophet”) - all

H,W 15. Jn 9:25 - indefinite (“a sinner”) - all

H,W 16. Jn 10:13 - indefinite (“a hireling/hired hand”) - all

H,W 17. Jn 12:6 - indefinite (“a thief”) - all

18. 1 Jn 4:20 - indefinite (“a liar”) - all
 


So when all the proper (those most closely equivalent to the actual usage found at John 1:1c) examples found in John's writings [17] are examined in various trinitarian Bibles (KJV, NASB, RSV, NIV, etc.), we find they are always translated with indefinite concrete nouns such as "you are a prophet" (Jn 4:19) which perfectly corresponds with a rendering of John 1:1c as "The Word was a god"!

----------------------------

Since a proper understanding of John 1:1c is our real objective, only the writings of John can provide the answer.[18] However, other (trinitarian) scholars have also examined some of the writings of the other gospel writers in an attempt to justify a trinitarian rule for Jn 1:1c. Therefore let's also examine all the proper examples found in the synoptic gospels which are most nearly parallel to Jn 1:1c.

In the Gospel of Matthew here are all the predicate nouns I found which precede their verbs: Matt. 2:23; 4:3, 6; 5:9, 34, 35 (bis); 6:23; 8:9; 12:8, 27, 50; 13:39 (b), 13:39 (c); 14:26, 33; 16:23; 21:13; 22:32 (b); 23:8 (b), 31; 25:35, 43; 26:48; 27:6, 40, 42, 54.

According to Harner (see HARNER study) here are all the predicate nouns that precede their verbs in the Gospel of Mark: Mark 2:28; 3:35; 6:49; 11:17; 11:32; 12:35; 14:70; 15:39.

In the Gospel of Luke we find the following predicate nouns that precede their verbs: 1:32, 76; 4:3, 9, 22; 5:8; 6:5; 7:8, 39; 9:38; 11:19, 29, 35, 48; 13:16; 17:10; 19:9, 21, 22; 20:6, 38; 21:22; 22:59; 23:6, 50.

The underlined verses above are all the non-prepositional predicate nouns which precede their verbs in the synoptic gospels. Here is a closer examination of them and how they have been translated in the KJV and the four most-respected (for scholarship and accuracy - see, for example, the evaluation of theses Bibles in Zondervan's So Many Versions?) trinitarian Bibles (RSV, NASB, NIV, ASV):
1. Mt 2:23 - indefinite ("a Nazarene") - all (KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV, ASV) n.s.

2. Mt 6:23 - indefinite plural/amount ("darkness") - all - pl.
3. Mt 8:9 - indefinite - may be prepositional - ("a man") - all
4. Mt 13:39 (c) - indefinite plural ("angels") - all except KJV - pl.
5. Mt 14:26 - indefinite ("a ghost") - all - n.s.
6. Mt 23:8 (b) - indefinite plural ("brothers/brethren") - all - pl.
7. Mt 25:35 - indefinite ("a stranger") - all - n.s.
8. Mt 25:43 - indefinite ("a stranger") - all - n.s.
9. Mt 26:48 - pronoun - ("he") - cannot use articles with pronoun - n.s.
10. Mk 6:49 - indefinite ("a ghost") - all - n.s.
11. Mk 11:32 - indefinite ("a prophet") - all - n.s. ?
12. Mk 14:70 - indefinite ("a Galilean") - all - n.s.
13. Lk 5:8 - indefinite ("a sinful man") - all - n.s.
14. Lk 7:39 - indefinite ("a sinner") - all - n.s.
15. Lk 11:35 - indefinite plural/amount ("darkness") - all - pl.
16. Lk 17:10 - indefinite plural ("slaves/servants") - all - pl.
17. Lk 19:21 - indefinite ("a harsh man") - all - n.s.
18. Lk 19:22 - indefinite ("a harsh man") - all
(Lk 20:6 - accusative case)
19. Lk 22:59 - indefinite ("a Galilean") - all - n.s.
20. Lk 23:6 - indefinite ("a Galilean") - all
21. Lk 23:50 - indefinite ("a counsellor") - KJV,ASV - see interlinears
("a member") - NASB, RSV, NIV
n.s. = no subject; pl. = plural;

Notice that for the 4 most respected, most accurate Bible translations available today all of the non-prepositional examples in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are understood to have indefinite predicate nouns. Not definite - not "qualitative" - BUT 100% INDEFINITE !


Although Watchtower Society (WTS) research and scholarship is usually at least the equal of (and often superior to) that of other sources, I have tried to rely most heavily on other sources in Christendom itself (preferably trinitarian) or my own independent research and conclusions to provide evidence disproving the trinitarian 'proof' being examined in this paper. The reason is, of course, that this paper is meant to provide evidence needed by non-Witnesses, and many of them will not accept anything written by the WTS. They truly believe it is false, even dishonest. Therefore some of the preceding information, all of which helps disprove specific trinitarian "proofs," may be in disagreement with current WTS teachings in some specifics (especially when I have presented a number of alternates). Jehovah's Witnesses should research the most recent WTS literature on the subject or scripture in question before using this information with others. - RDB.


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