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Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Isaiah 44:6

Is. 44:6 is not really a "speaker confusion" example (although it's like the other speaker confusion tricks in other ways). It's a "pronoun confusion" trick. It's extremely poor, but some trinitarians are actually desperate enough for "evidence" to use it anyway. Is. 44:6 in the American Standard Version (ASV) says, "Thus saith Jehovah [the LORD - KJV], the King of Israel, and his Redeemer, Jehovah of hosts...." The "proof" here, according to a few trinitarians, is that there are two `different' Jehovahs [LORDs] mentioned! And one is the redeemer of the other!

The trick here is that these trinitarians pretend the pronoun "his" refers to Jehovah when it actually refers to Israel. The following trinitarian Bibles, however, actually translate it correctly (e.g., "Thus says the LORD, Israel's King and redeemer, the LORD of hosts" - NAB): NIV, JB, LB, GNB, REB, NJB, and Moffatt. And the trinitarian Bibles which use capitalized pronouns for God ("Me, My, He, His," etc.) also show, by their lack of capitalization, that "his" refers to Israel in this scripture: "Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts" - NASB (see also MLB, Beck, and Young translations).

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Phil. 2:6

Monogenes (only begotten)

OBGOD - Jn 1:18 - "only-begotten god" - NWT (Examining the Trinity)

Monogenes (only begotten) (Defending the NWT)
Does Coptic John 1:18 contradict Coptic John 1:1? (NWT & Coptic)

DEF (Examining the Trinity)

THEON (Examining the Trinity)

Monogenes (only begotten) (Defending the NWT)

Begotten and Created (Examining the Trinity)

What Does the Bible Say About God and Jesus? (WBTS; 6th heading "How the "Only-Begotten Son"?)

John 1:18 "the only-begotten god" / Son (Defending the NWT)

Isa. 9:6

Click on any of the following links to view:

Isa. 9:6 "Mighty God, Eternal Father" (Examining the Trinity)

NAME - “Jesus,” “Immanuel,” and Is. 9:6 (Examining the Trinity)

BOWGOD (God and gods) (Examining the Trinity)

Isa. 9:6 (Defending the NWT)

Does Isa. 9:6 prove that Jesus is God? (SFBT)

Why is Jesus called "Mighty God" at Isa. 9:6? (SFBT)

One God in Three? (Pastor Russell; Heading: "No Trinity in the “Old Testament”')

How does the Codex Sinaiticus render Is. 9:6? (JWQ&A)

How is translated Isaiah 9:6 in old Aramaic Targums? (JWQ&A)

Wednesday, November 17, 2010

John 14:14 "Ask me"

John 14:14

Robert Bowman in his Understanding Jehovah’s Witnesses, Baker Book House, 1991:

"John 14:14 should also be mentioned. In the NWT this reads: “If YOU ask anything in my name, I will do it.” The Greek text in the KIT [Kingdom Interlinear Translation], however, has me after ask, so that it should be translated: “If you ask me anything in my name, I will do it.” It is true that some later Greek manuscripts omitted this word, but most of the earlier ones included it, and most modern editions of the Greek New Testament include it. At the very least, the NWT ought to have mentioned this reading in a note." - pp. 67-68.

But at John 14:14 'me' is omitted after 'ask' in the following trinitarian Bibles:

ASV; CBW; Darby; GNV; JB; KJ21; KJV; MLB; NEB; REB; NKJV; LB; MKJV (Green); NLV; RSV; WEB; WE; Young’s. 
Many of them do not mention an alternate reading of 'me' in a note! And, likewise, many of the Bibles which do translate ‘ask me’ in this verse do not mention an alternate reading without ‘me’!!

The prestigious The Expositor’s Greek New Testament (Vol. 1, p. 824) also omits “me” from its text and does not even bother to address the matter in its voluminous notes.  Bible Analyzer calls this 5-volume work “The Premier Greek Resource.

This is a disputed text. There exists manuscript evidence that ‘me’ may not have been used by the original writer.  (Also see  - Nov. 2, 2010 - where ‘Memra’ explains the importance of the ancient Coptic translation of this verse.)

However, there is no such dispute about John 16:23 where John wrote: “... whatever you ask the Father for, he will give you in my name.” We should ask the Father (not the Son) in Jesus’ name. Therefore 'me' at John 14:14 is even more in doubt.

Bowman has access to a copy of (and is quite familiar with) the 1984 NWT Reference Bible. He repeatedly quotes from it and refers to notes in it in both this 1991 publication (Understanding Jehovah’s Witnesses) and his 1989 publication, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Jesus Christ, and the Gospel of John.

Yes, the 1984 NWT Reference Bible (which does have notes, of course) says in a footnote for John 14:14:

14* “Ask,” ADIt and in agreement with 15:16 and 16:23; P66 [Aleph]BWVgSy(h,p), “ask me.”

So for Bowman to pretend here that the NWT does not even mention that some Greek manuscripts have the word ‘me’ in this verse is simply inexcusable!

Also see:

John 14:14 (Defending the New World Translation)

Ask Who? (jwitness forum)

John 14:14: To "me" or not to "me", that is the question (Sahidic Coptic Insight on NT Verses)

Saturday, October 30, 2010

Importance of the only proper name of God

Importance of the Personal Name of God


Importance of the Personal Name of God

The only personal name of God is JEHOVAH (Ps. 83:18, KJV) or Yahweh (New Jerusalem Bible). The deliberate substitution of 'LORD' for that holy name in most English Bibles is a grave error.

The Israelites used the only personal name of God [YHWH in Hebrew] profusely (in prayer, and respectfully in everyday language [see end note] - see King David's words, for example). We are instructed in scripture to call upon that name and to invoke it.

There is nothing wrong with also calling him 'Father' or ‘God,’ but to completely ignore the name (whether ‘Jehovah’ or ‘Yahweh’ in English), as much of Christendom has, is scripturally wrong.

Ex. 3:15 -
Jehovah [YHWH], .... This is My name forever, and this is My memorial from generation to generation. - LITV (Green)

“Jehovah, .... This is My name forever and by this I am to be remembered through all generations.” - MLB.

“Jehovah ... This is my eternal name, to be used throughout all generations.” - LB.

  “Jehovah ... this is my name forever.” - Byington.

  “Jehovah, ... this is my name forever” - ASV.

  “Jehovah, .... This is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.” - Darby.

“Yahweh [YHWH] .... This is my name for all time, and thus I am to be invoked for all generations to come.” - JB and NJB.


1 Chron. 16:8 -

“O give thanks unto Jehovah, call upon his name; Make known his doings among the peoples.” - ASV.

  “Give thanks to Yahweh, call his name aloud, proclaim his deeds to the peoples [‘among the nations’ - NAB (1991); MLB; GNB; ‘world’ - LB].” - NJB.

  “O give thanks to Jehovah, call upon His name” - KJIIV.

     “Give thanks to Jehovah, call in His name” - Young’s.

   “... call upon him by his name” - The Septuagint, Zondervan Publ., 1970.


Is. 12:4 -
“And in that day shall ye say, Give thanks unto Jehovah, call upon his name, declare his doings among the peoples, make mention that his name is exalted.” - ASV.

  “And, that day, you will say, ‘Praise Yahweh, invoke his name. Proclaim his deeds to the people [‘nations’, RSV, NRSV, MLB, NAB (1991), GNB; ‘world’, LB], declare his name sublime.’” - NJB.

  “call his name aloud.” - JB.

    “invoke him by name” - NEB & REB.

  “call aloud upon his name” [Boate to onoma autou, literally: “call aloud his name”] - The Septuagint, Zondervan Publ., 1970.

Zeph. 3:9 - “For then will I turn to the peoples a pure language, that they may all call upon the name of Jehovah, to serve him with one consent.” - ASV.

  “Yes, then [the last days] I shall purge the lips of the peoples, so that all may invoke the name of Yahweh.” - NJB, c.f. JB.

Joel 2:26, 32 - “And ye ... shall praise the name of Jehovah your God .... And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of Jehovah shall be delivered.” - ASV.

“You WILL ... praise the name of Yahweh your God .... All who call on [‘invoke’ - REB] the name of Yahweh will be saved” - NJB.

Here, like knowing God (Jn 17:3; 2 Thess. 1:8, 9), calling on (or invoking) Jehovah’s name is an essential part of the road that leads to life.

Since it is a requirement to call upon, or invoke the name Jehovah, the knowledge and use of that name IS essential (as made known in the OT at least)! And, like knowing God, “calling upon his name, Jehovah” includes much more than merely pronouncing his name aloud in prayer. But, nevertheless, it does include the knowledge and use of his personal name, Jehovah (or Yahweh).

For example, Elijah, in his famous demonstration of who the only true God is, told the priests of Baal, “Call on the name of your god, and I will call on the name of Jehovah: and the God that answers by fire, let him be God.”

So how did the priests of Baal call on the name of their god?

“And they ... called on the name of Baal ... saying ‘O Baal, hear us.’” And how did Elijah call on the name of Jehovah? O Jehovah .... Hear me, O Jehovah, hear me, that this people may know that thou, Jehovah, art God.... And when all the people saw it, they fell on their faces: and they said [aloud, uncoded, in plain language], ‘Jehovah, he is God’” - ASV, 1 Ki.18:24, 26, 36-39. - Obviously, calling on (or invoking) the name of Jehovah includes the reverent use of that only personal name of the true God!

Many other scriptures throughout the OT declare the extreme importance (to God and us) of our knowing and declaring and calling upon the name Jehovah:


Jer. 16:19, 21 -

“O Jehovah ... unto thee shall the nations come from the ends of the earth, and shall say, Our fathers have inherited nought but lies ... and they will know that my name is Jehovah.” - ASV.

  “and they shall know that My name is Jehovah.” - KJIIV & MKJV.

  “and they will be certain that my name is [Jehovah].” - BBE.

  “and they shall know that my name is Jehovah.” - Darby.

“and they shall know that my name is JEHOVAH.” - Webster.

“and they shall learn that My name is [Jehovah]. – Tanakh.

Zech. 13:9 -
“They shall call upon my name, and I will hear them: I will say, It is my people; and they shall say, Jehovah is my God.” - ASV.

“They shall call on My name, and I will answer them. I will say, It is My people, and they shall say, Jehovah is my God.” - KJIIV.

“They shall call on my name, and I will answer them: I will say, It is my people; and they shall say, Jehovah is my God.” - Darby.

“They will invoke me by name, … And they will declare, [Jehovah] is our God” – Tanakh.

   Notice the parallelism: ‘They shall call upon my name’ is paralleled with ‘Jehovah is my God.”


Ezek. 39:7 -
“And my holy name will I make known ... and the nations shall know that I am Jehovah” - ASV.

“The nations will know that I am Yahweh” - NJB.

“I will make My holy name known among My people Israel, and never again will I let My holy name be profaned. And the nations shall know that I [Jehovah] am holy in Israel.” – Tanakh.

Ps. 83:16, 18 -

“Fill their faces with shame; that they may seek thy name, [O Jehovah].... that men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth.” - KJV.

    “Fill their faces with shame, that they may seek Your name .... Let them be ashamed and troubled forever; yea, let them be put to shame, and lost; so that men may know that Your name is JEHOVAH, that You alone are the Most High over all the earth.” - MKJV.

“Cover their faces with shame so that they seek Your name, O [Jehovah] …. May they know that Your name, Yours alone, is [Jehovah], supreme over all the earth.” – Tanakh.

We are to know and use Jehovah’s name, but we must not misunderstand how extremely important it is to Him (and to us). One of God’s Ten Commandments, for example commands:

“You shall not misuse the name of Yahweh [YHWH] your God, for Yahweh will not leave unpunished anyone who misuses his name.” - Ex. 20:7, NJB [also see NRSV, NIV, NEB, REB, GNB, NLV, ETRV].

God certainly didn’t say, “Don’t ever use my Holy Name”! By direct Bible statements and commands and by the clear, thousand-fold repeated examples of all the prophets of God in the OT we know that God’s Holy Name must be known and used by his people - for all generations. Instead, this Scripture shows the extreme importance of that name (would God really punish anyone who deceitfully misuses his name if that name weren’t extremely important?) and that it must be used in a manner that shows its great importance.

Notice how two of the most-respected, “orthodox,” trinitarian Bible study publications address this extremely important issue:

“Of primary significance is the name of Yahweh [or Jehovah] which he himself made known in his revelation (Gen. 17:1; Exod. 3:14 [and 3:15]; 6:2...). One of the most fundamental and essential features of the biblical revelation is the fact that God is not without a name: he has a personal name [Jehovah or Yahweh], by which he can, and is to be, invoked.” - p. 649, The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Vol. 2, Zondervan, 1986.

  And the New Bible Dictionary, Tyndale House Publ., 1984, after telling us on p. 812 that God changed his previously ‘external’ relationship with mankind by revealing his PERSONAL NAME to his people and thereby established with them “the highly personal relationship to a God who has given his people the liberty to call him by name,” further states:

“The name of God is described as his ‘holy name’ more often than all other adjectival qualifications [titles, descriptions, etc.] taken together. It was this sense of the sacredness of the name that finally led to the obtuse [stupid] refusal to use ‘Yahweh’, leading as it has done to a deep loss of the sense of the divine name in [English-language Bibles].” - p. 813, section d.

Also, the trinitarian Today’s Dictionary of the Bible (Bethany House, 1982) says:

“Jeho’vah, the special and significant name (not merely an appellative title such as Lord [or God]) by which God revealed himself .... The Hebrew name ‘Jehovah’ is generally translated [in most English Bibles] by the word ‘LORD’ printed in small capitals to distinguish it from the [honest] rendering of the Hebrew Adonai and the Greek Kurios, which are also rendered ‘Lord,’ but in the usual type.” - p. 330.

   Even trinitarian translator and scholar Jay P. Green writes in the Preface of his The Interlinear Bible:

“The only personal name of God that belongs to Him alone was rendered either Jehovah or, in its shortened form, Jah. We preferred the transliteration JHWH (thus Jehovah) over YHWH (or Yahweh) because this is established English usage for Bible names beginning with this letter (e.g., Jacob and Joseph). - p. v, Baker Book House, 1982.

“Jehovah denotes specifically the one true God, whose people the Jews were, and who made them the guardians of his truth. .... The substitution of the word Lord is most unhappy, for it in no way represents the meaning of the sacred name.” - p. 220, Smith’s Bible Dictionary, Hendrickson Publ.

And the translators of the highly-praised American Standard Version (ASV) of 1901 wrote about their translation:

“The change ... which substitutes ‘Jehovah’ for ‘LORD’ and ‘GOD’ (printed in small capitals) - is one which will be unwelcome to many, because of the frequency and familiarity of the terms displaced. But the American Revisers, after a careful consideration, were brought to the unanimous conviction that a Jewish superstition, which regarded the Divine Name as too sacred to be uttered, ought no longer to dominate in the English or any other version of the Old Testament.... This personal name, with its wealth of sacred associations, is now restored to the place in the sacred text to which it has an unquestionable claim.” - Preface, p. iv, American Standard Version, Thomas Nelson and Sons.

Commenting on this restoration of God's personal name in the ASV, The Presbyterian and Reformed Review said in 1902:

"We cannot understand how there can be any difference of opinion as to the rightness of this step. This is the Lord's personal name, by which He has elected to be known by His people: the loss suffered by transmuting it into His descriptive title seems to us immense. To be sure there are disputes as to the true form of the name, and nobody supposes that 'Jehovah' is that true form. But it has the value of the true form to the English reader; and it would be mere pedantry to substitute for it Yahwe or any other forms now used with more or less inaccuracy by scholastic writers. We account it no small gain for the English reader of the Old Testament that he will for the first time in this popular version meet statedly with 'Jehovah' and learn all that 'Jehovah' has been to and done for His people."


19 O Jehovah, my strength and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction, the nations shall come to You from the ends of the earth and say, Our fathers have inherited only lies, vanity, and there is no profit in them. …. 21 And, behold, I will make them know; this time I will cause them to know My hand and My might; and they shall know that My name is Jehovah. - Jer. 16:19, 21, LITV.

“God said further to Moses, You tell the Israelites: JEHOVAH ... has sent me to you. This is My name forever and by this I am to be remembered through all generations.” - Ex. 3:15, MLB (Cf. NEB, LB, ASV, KJIIV).

“Fill their faces with shame; that they may seek thy name, [O Jehovah - ASV] .... That men may know that thou, whose name alone is Jehovah, art the most high over all the earth.” - Ps. 83:16, 18, KJV, LB.

ASV - Ezekiel 39:6, 7 “And I will send a fire on Magog, and on them that dwell securely in the isles; and they shall know that I am Jehovah . And my holy name will I make known in the midst of my people Israel; neither will I suffer my holy name to be profaned any more: and the nations shall know that I am Jehovah.” - American Standard Version.

End Note:
We see that in the very first section of the Jewish Mishnah (Darby's translation) the decree that "a man should salute his fellow with [the use of] the Name [of God]," the example of Boaz (Ru 2:4) then being cited. - Berakhot 9:5.

Ruth 2:4 - "And, behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem, and said to the reapers, Jehovah be with you. And they answered him, Jehovah bless you." - The Interlinear Bible (J.P. Green), Baker Book House.

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Gender of article, pronouns for use with holy spirit discussions

(From the RDB Files)

When attempting to explain the gender of words in the NT Greek (especially concerning the holy spirit) which are sometimes mistranslated (even in respected interlinears), try the following in conjunction with any interlinear NT Greek.

The following Greek Grammar by Gresham shows the gender of the definite article (‘the’ - pp. 24, 34), the gender of numerals (pp. 165); the gender of personal pronouns (‘he,’ ‘she,’ ‘it’ - p. 47), of reflexive pronouns (‘himself,’ ‘herself,’ ‘itself’ - p. 154), of relative pronouns (‘who,’ ‘which’ - p. 173). Or go to pp. 235-237 for a review of all the above.

The print is quite small, so right click to find ‘zoom in’ key (I still need to use a magnifying glass also.). Scroll down to find slider to move page to left or right.

For a larger print examination of the definite article and pronouns:  (click on 'go to pronoun paradigms')

Another look at relative pronouns (p. 111):

And of the personal pronouns:

And of the relative pronoun:

As for the explanation of the N., D., G., A., and V. (Nominative case, Dative case, Genitive case, Accusative case, and Vocative case) which are usually at the left hand side of the charts examined above, see p. 25:

Or see p. 5:

Or pp. 29-30 (#27):

Saturday, September 18, 2010

Thursday, September 16, 2010

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

Jehovah's Witnesses / Trinity

Why Don't Jehovah's Witnesses Believe in the Trinity?

Nowhere in the Bible is it mentioned that Jesus ever claimed to be God. Rather, he specifically called the "Father...the only true God." (John 17:1-3; Also see John 20:17; 2 Corinthians 1:3 and 1 Corinthians 8:6)

Nowhere in the Bible does it conclusively say that Jesus is God. Instead, the Bible repeatedly refers to Jesus as the "son of God". Because the Bible describes Jesus as the second oldest and second most important person in the universe, the Bible calls Jesus:

the "only-begotten Son" of God. (John 1:14; 3:16, 18; 1 John 4:9)

"the first-born of all creation". (Colossians 1:15)

"the beginning of God's creation". (Revelation 3:14)

The Bible shows that Jesus is subordinate to God: "The head of the Christ is God." (1 Corinthians 11:3) Jesus himself said: "The Father is greater than I." (John 14:28)

Concerning the supposed third person of the Trinity, nowhere in the Bible is the Holy Spirit called "God, the Holy Spirit." Instead, the Bible tells us that the Holy Spirit is not a person, but rather is God's active force. Even many trinitarian scholars will admit this.

Not only does Biblical and historical evidence clearly not support the Trinity, but Historian Will Durant said that

"Christianity did not destroy paganism; it adopted it. . . . From Egypt came the ideas of a divine trinity."

And Arthur Weigall stated that

"Nowhere in the New Testament does the word `trinity' appear. The idea was only adopted by the Church three hundred years after the death of our Lord; and the origin of the conception is entirely pagan." - The Paganism in our Christianity, pp. 197, 198.

Some look to a few selected Bible texts as "proof" of the Trinity. However, not even so much as one of these "proof texts" says that the Father, Jesus, and the holy spirit are one in some mysterious Godhead and, very often, the true meaning of such a text is clarified by the context of surrounding verses.

Click on any of the following links to view:

Responses to those who falsely claim that Jehovah's Witnesses quoted out of context in the brochure "Should you believe in the Trinity?" (Examining the Trinity)

Are Jehovah's Witnesses not Christians because they do not believe in the Trinity? (Search For Bible Truths)

Are Jehovah's Witnesses the first to reason that Jesus is Michael the Archangel? (Search For Bible Truths)

Do Jehovah's Witnesses Deny Biblical Monotheism? (Jehovah's Witnesses United)

Jehovah's Witnesses, not a form of Arianism
(Pastor Russell)

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Thursday, July 15, 2010

Are Jehovah's Witnesses the first to reason that Jesus is Michael the Archangel?

It is likely that most reject this reasoning due to a theological bias. But, as can be seen below, Jehovah's Witnesses weren't the first to reason that Jesus is Michael the Archangel:

"In a number of passages we read of an angel who is superior to the six angels of God's inner council, and who is regularly described as "most venerable", "holy", and "glorious". This angel is given the name of Michael, and the conclusion is difficult to escape that Hermas saw in him the Son of God and equated him with the archangel Michael. Both, for example, are invested with supreme power over the people of God; both pronounce judgment on the faithful; and both hand sinners over to the angel of repentance to reform them. ... The evidence to be collected from the Apostolic Fathers is meagre, and tantalizingly inconclusive. There is evidence also, as we observed in the preceding paragraph, of attempts to interpret Christ as a sort of supreme angel; here the influence of Jewish angelology is discernible." - Early Christian Doctrines, by JND Kelly, pp 94, 95)

In The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, John A. Lees says:

"The earlier Protestant scholars usually identified Michael with the preincarnate Christ, finding support for their view, not only in the juxtaposition of the "child" and the archangel in Rev 12, but also in the attributes ascribed to him in Dnl (for a full discussion see Hengstenberg, Offenbarung, I, 611-22, and an interesting survey in English by Dr. Douglas in Fairbairn's B{ible} D{ictionary}." (1930, Vol. III), p. 2048 (and in Vol. IV, pp. 238-241 of Zondervan Publishing's 1957 reprint.)

"ARCHANGEL. This word is only twice used in the Bible, 1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 9. In the last passage it is applied to Michael, who, in Dan. 10:13,21; 12:1, is described as having a special charge of the Jewish Nation, and in Rev. 12:7-9 as the leader of an angelic army. So exalted are the position and offices ascribed to Michael, that many think the Messiah is meant." - International Bible Dictionary, published by Logos International, Plainfield, New Jersey, p. 35.

Protestant Reformer John Calvin said regarding "Michael" in its occurrence at Daniel 12:1:

"I embrace the opinion of those who refer this to the person of Christ, because it suits the subject best to represent him as standing forward for the defense of his elect people." - J. Calvin, Commentaries On The Book Of The Prophet Daniel, trans. T. Myers (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979), vol. 2 p. 369.

John Wesley's Note on the Whole Bible:

Daniel Chapter 10

13. Withstood me; God suffered the wicked counsels of Cambyses to take place awhile; but Daniel by his prayers, and the angel by his power, overcame him at last: and this very thing laid a foundation of the ruin of the Persian monarchies. Michael; Michael here is commonly supposed to mean Christ. I remained; To counter-work their designs against the people of God

21. Michael; Christ alone is the protector of his church, when all the princes of the earth desert or oppose it.

C. H. Spurgeon from "Mornings and Evenings":

"To whom do we owe all this? Let the Lord Jesus Christ be for ever endeared to us, for through Him we are made to sit in heavenly places far above principalities and powers. He it is whose camp is round about them that fear Him; He is the true Michael whose foot is upon the dragon. All hail, Jesus! thou Angel of Jehovah's presence, to Thee this family offers its morning vows."

For much more, see the category:


Wednesday, July 7, 2010

VIDEO - "The Beginning of God's Creation" (A grammatical and historical consideration of Revelation 3:14.)

For more concerning Rev. 3:14, see:

NWT - Rev. 3:14

BWF - 'Beginning,' 'Wisdom,' and 'Firstborn'

Can't find what you're looking for in the search box? Try using the alphabetical list of topics below (for example, see "A" for "Angels"):
# A B C D E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L M  N O  PQ R S T UV  WXYZ

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Begotten and Created


Tertullian, too, like the other Ante-Nicene Fathers (ANF), taught that Prov. 8:22-30 relates the words of the Son of God, Christ (speaking as “Wisdom”):

“‘At first the Lord {Jehovah} created me as the beginning of His ways, with a view to His own works, before He made the earth, before the mountains were settled; moreover, before all the hills did He beget me;’ that is to say, He created and generated me in His own intelligence.” - ANF, 3:601, ‘Against Praxeas.’


"Scripture in other passages teaches us of the creation of the individual parts. You have Wisdom {the Son of God} saying, ‘But before the depths was I brought forth,’ in order that you may believe that the depths were also ‘brought forth’ - that is created just as we create sons also, though we ‘bring them forth.’ It matters not whether the depth {like Wisdom itself} was made or born, so that a beginning be accorded to it" - ANF, 3:495, ‘Against Hermogenes.’


“Begotten” and “Son”

“Begotten” and “created” are English words carefully chosen by Bible translators to convey the meaning of the Hebrew and Greek words of the original manuscripts as closely as possible. So first we should determine what the words “created” and “begotten” actually mean in English. The Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, 1963 ed. that I have at home says:

create ... 1: to bring into existence...3 : cause, make” - p. 195. And beget ... begot ... begotten ... 1 : to procreate as the father : sire 2 : cause” - p. 77.

These two words can share the identical meaning of “cause to be.” That is, we may say the mother has created a child or (more often) someone has begotten something that he built or produced somehow.

The Hebrew word yalad means “to bear, bring forth, beget” but it can be used (as the equivalent English word also can) for “cause to be.” For example, when God says he “begot”/”fathered” (yalad) the nation of Israel (Deut. 32:6, 18), he clearly means that he caused it to be or created it as a nation. There is no implication that it was somehow begotten out of the very substance of his body. In like manner God calls the nation of Israel his son, his firstborn because it was the very first nation created by him and for him (cf. Ex. 4:22). Again, anything Jehovah creates may be said to be “begotten” by him and is his “offspring.”

“Is this the way you treat Jehovah? O foolish people, is not God your Father? Has he not created you?” - Deut. 32:6, Living Bible.

“You forsook the creator who begot [yalad] you and cared nothing for God who brought you to birth.” - Deut. 32:18, NEB.

“Men of Athens [non-Christians], .... The God who made the world and everything in it ... does not live in shrines made by man. .... Being then God’s offspring, we ought not to think that the Deity is like gold or silver, or stone...” - Acts 17:22, 24, 29, RSV.

It’s especially important to note the dual application of Psalm 2:7. Here Jehovah speaks to the Israelite king and says “Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten [yalad] thee.” It’s true that the Israelite king (David?) prefigures Jesus Christ here, but notice that this scripture must directly apply to David also. Jehovah hasn’t literally begotten him out of his very own substance so that now King David’s very body and substance are identical to God’s.

No, the king has, at this point, been accepted by God in a new way. God has caused him to be in a new status.

So when this scripture is also applied to the Christ, it is to be applied in a similar (although greater) manner.

In Ps. 90:2 we also see yalad used in the sense of created: “Before the mountains were born [yalad] or you brought forth the earth” - NIV, AT, JB, NJB, NAB (1991), NASB; “begotten” - NAB (1970); “were given birth” - MLB. Or, “Before the mountains were created, before the earth was formed.” - Living Bible, cf. TEV. So, the Hebrew word most often translated “begotten, brought forth” may also be understood (as in English) to mean created or produced. And whether or not God means that the earth (or “mountains”) was literally “begotten” from his very own spirit body or created out of nothing really matters very little. The point is that at one time it did not exist and then was brought into existence by the Creator, God!

The very title of God (“Father”) used as “source of all things” shows this common meaning throughout both testaments. God is the Father of all. What does this mean? He is the Father of the Universe, the Father of all creation, and even the Father of the Angels. (They truly are called “sons of God” and they were in existence before the earth was created - Job 38:4, 7, cf..Living Bible and NIVSB f.n.) They are spirit persons. Should we assume then that the angels were “begotten” from God in the sense that they have existed eternally and are actually composed of his very own spirit substance, etc.? After all, it doesn’t actually say that they were “created.” We know they were created because their Father created/“begot” everything: He is the “Father of all” including the spirit persons in heaven. - Eph. 4:6; Heb. 1:7; 12:9.

1 Cor. 8:6 tells us, again, that God is the Father of ALL things. He is the Creator of all things. The very common usage of “Father,” “son,” “begotten,” “born,” etc. is again used here for creation. Not only is God the Father of all created things here, but these things have literally “come out” (ek) from him. (“But to us there is but one God, the Father, [‘out of’ - ek] whom are all things”.) Yes the original New Testament word used here is “ek” which literally means “out of” (W. E. Vine, p.1270) and is commonly used in the sense of generating, begetting. For example, Matt. 1:3 literally reads in the original manuscripts: “Judah generated Perez and Zerah out of [ek] Tamar.” Judah was the father, but the children were literally out of the body (essence, flesh) of their mother Tamar.

Someone could assume that since God existed alone before creation, he used some of his own substance (Spirit), which apparently is an incomprehensibly powerful and infinite energy “substance,” to create or produce the other spirit creatures in heaven (his ‘sons,’ the angels). If so, he may have modified it before producing them (just as he must have modified somewhat the earth ‘substance’ from which he created Adam’s substance - 'the son of God' - Luke 3:38, KJV; RSV; NASB.), so that their spirit “substance” is different from his own (just as there are different forms of energy found within this universe). Then we might assume that he directed his “Firstborn Son” (through whom he created everything else) to use more of that Spirit (unlimited energy) to create the material universe which scientists know started in an incomprehensible blast of energy (“the Big Bang”) which then converted into the matter and energy of our universe. God then (through his firstborn son) created (or “begot”) all the complex details within that universe, including mankind.

{Does it help to consider Adam and Eve? Eve “existed” for quite some time as a part of Adam - his very own rib. She was “begotten” out of (ek) Adam from his very substance. Her new existence began her own conscious life - she was not aware of her previous existence “within” Adam. She was not equal to Adam in authority. She did not know everything he did. She was not as powerful as he.

She shared his “substance” (literally), but she was by no means equal to him in any real sense. She was his “only-begotten” in the sense of being truly “bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh” and being the only one so “begotten,” but we must not consider them as both equally Adam in some "Binity."  She was an entirely different person, created (or “begotten”) some time after Adam, and in subjection to him (1 Cor. 11:3).

Whether Jesus was literally created out of Jehovah’s own substance is pure speculation, but even if he had been, it wouldn’t have to mean anything more than this example of Adam and Eve does.}

If these assumptions are correct, then, in a sense, everything that exists (other than God Himself, of course) came initially from (or “out of”) God’s very essence or being and was converted into its present state of different forms of matter and energy (in the universe) and different forms of spirit (in heaven). Therefore everything was “begotten” from God in a more literal sense than if he created everything from nothing. Everything would have been a part of God eternally until it was “begotten” in a new form. And if God produced his first creation (his “Firstborn”) from his own Spirit substance (whether he altered that substance or not) and then produced everything else (including angels) through that “firstborn Son” as His Master Worker, then the only thing that God would have created personally and directly would have been his “only-begotten Son” – see the BWF study paper. But what does it really matter to us at this time? We will know these things someday, but it doesn’t mean eternal life to know it now.

We do know that Jesus existed before he came to earth. We don’t know exactly when or how he was first produced or from what initial substance, if any. We know that, like other things created or produced by God (who is the Creator, or the Father), he has been described as “born” and “begotten” and “son.”

Col. 1:15, 18 is notable as an example of this.

“He [Christ] is the image of the unseen God and the first-born of all creation, .... As he is the beginning, he was first to be born [first-born] from the dead, so that he should be first in every way” - The Jerusalem Bible.

So how is Jesus “the first-born of all creation”? In the same way that the parallel second half (Col. 1:18) of this comparison shows it to be: the very first one produced in that category. That is, just as Christ was the very first one of all the dead to be resurrected (or re-born or re-created) to enjoy eternal life (“firstborn from the dead” - Col. 1:18), so he is also the very first one of all things created (“firstborn of all creation” - Col. 1:15).

We should also consider that in whatever manner Christ is to be considered “firstborn,” he has others like him to follow. As “firstborn of creation” there were more created ones to follow (and they were created through him). As “firstborn from the dead” there were others to follow (and they were to be raised to eternal life through him). Also as firstborn Jesus was to have many brothers: “that he might be the firstborn among many brethren.” - Ro. 8:29.

The point is that “firstborn” often does not mean a literal “begetting” in the sense of literal fleshly offspring from a literal parent. (Israel was the “firstborn” nation of God because it was the first one brought into existence by him to serve him exclusively: “Thus saith Jehovah, ‘Israel is my son, my first-born.’” - Ex. 4:22, ASV.) It is frequently used (especially by God) in the sense of creating. And it always means the first thing produced or created in the sense that others will eventually follow. If Jesus was called “firstborn Son of God” because he was literally begotten from the very substance of God, then (because of the inherent meaning of “firstborn”) others have been (or will be) produced in the same manner. Isn’t it most probable that “Firstborn Son” merely means the very first actual creation by God (and the only one directly by his own “hands”) and then the rest of the sons of God (and all creation after that) were produced from God through that “only-begotten” Son?

Be sure to compare Jesus’ own description of himself at Rev. 3:14. He calls himself “the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God.” Doesn’t this also tell us that Jesus was the very first one to be created? - See BWF study paper. Since God was never created, Jesus must be an “only-begotten god” at Jn 1:18 (modern NT texts: UBS; Nestle; Westcott and Hort).

Monday, June 14, 2010

Us ... Our Image - Gen. 1

“Us ... Image”

When God said “Let us make man in our image” (Gen. 1:26), we are not told to whom he was speaking. If God had been the only one in existence at the time, we would have some reason to think he was speaking to himself. However, we know that his only-begotten Son had already come into existence at that time (and also the angels). The firstborn Son was “in the image of God” and certainly the other “sons of God” (angels) were also. It should come as no surprise that “our image” would include not only God’s but those others who were also in his image.

If, as scripture tells us, the Son (who is also in God’s image - 2 Cor. 4:4) was the “workman” for God (see “Wisdom” below) who physically made men at God’s command and direction, why should we try to manufacture a “three-in-one God” to explain an already scripturally-explained statement? “Let us (God and His Firstborn Son - or even God and all His sons: Jesus and the angels, or “powers”) make man in our image.”

Notice how the following trinitarian authorities treat this plural pronoun evidence:

“The plural us, our ... probably refers to the divine beings who compose God’s heavenly court (1 Kg. 22:19; Job 1:6).” - Gen. 1:26 footnote in The New Oxford Annotated Bible (1977).

“...possibly the plural form implies a discussion between God and his heavenly court.” - The Jerusalem Bible, footnote for Gen. 1:26.

“[God’s angels] were thought of as God’s senate; God did nothing without consulting them. For instance, When God said: ‘Let us make man’ (Genesis 1:26), it was to the angel senate that he was speaking.” - p. 17, The Letter to the Hebrews, Revised, Dr. William Barclay, “The Daily Study Bible Series,” The Westminster Press, 1976.

And the popular NIV Study Bible, 1985 ed., tells us in footnotes for Gen. 1:26; Job 1:6; 38:7:

- “1:26 us ... our ... our. God speaks as the Creator-King, announcing his crowning work to the members of his heavenly court”

- “1:6 angels came to present themselves. .... They came as members of the heavenly council who stand in the presence of God” [Notice, they are called ‘the sons of God’ in this verse.]

- “38:7 .... When the earth was created, the angels [‘sons of God’] were there to sing the praises of the Creator”

Why would anyone think God was more than one person from the two or three passages where he uses a plural pronoun to include himself with others (and most trinitarian scholars themselves explain them as above) when there are innumerable clear passages where he uses the singular pronouns “I” and “me” to refer to himself alone?

Consider: The all-powerful king of the land decides to build himself a new palace in the wilderness. He supplies everything: the design, the materials, the workmen, and the master worker (the foreman). He assembles his workers and says:

We must have the palace completed within 7 years or the Queen will make all of us miserable!”

Truly now, would any objective, reasonable person insist that this statement by the king must mean the king is a ‘multiple-person’ King?

Thursday, June 10, 2010

Hallowed Be Thy Name

“Hallowed be thy name” - What name?

Jesus gave this prayer to the Father (Matt. 6:9; Luke 11:2). He began this prayer by saying ‘Hallowed be thy name’ or, in more modern English, ‘May your Holy Name be honored.’- GNB (cf. JB, NJB, MLB, LB, Holman NT; Weymouth NT; New Century Version; New Life Bible; God’s Word; World English Bible; International Standard Version; etc.)

Obviously, since he was praying to the Father in heaven, he didn’t mean his own name: Jesus. So what is the Father’s name? It is the same name which is the only name to be called the ‘holy name’ in all of the scriptures.

Here are some examples:

(ASV) Leviticus 22:1 And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, 2 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that they separate themselves from the holy things of the children of Israel, which they hallow unto me, and that they profane not my holy name: I am Jehovah.

(ASV) Leviticus 22:31 Therefore shall ye keep my commandments, and do them: I am Jehovah. 32 And ye shall not profane my holy name ….

(ASV) 1 Chronicles 16:7 Then on that day did David first ordain to give thanks unto Jehovah, by the hand of Asaph and his brethren. 8 O give thanks unto Jehovah, call upon his name; Make known his doings among the peoples. 9 Sing unto him, sing praises unto him; Talk ye of all his marvellous works. 10 Glory ye in his holy name;

(ASV) 1 Chronicles 16:34 O give thanks unto Jehovah; for he is good; For his lovingkindness endureth for ever. 35 And say ye, Save us, O God of our salvation, And gather us together and deliver us from the nations, To give thanks unto thy holy name, ….

(ASV) Psalms 33:1 Rejoice in Jehovah, O ye righteous: …. 21 For our heart shall rejoice in him, Because we have trusted in his holy name.

(ASV) Psalms 103:1 Bless Jehovah, O my soul; And all that is within me, bless his holy name.

(ASV) Psalms 145:21 My mouth shall speak the praise of Jehovah; And let all flesh bless his holy name for ever and ever.

(ASV) Ezekiel 20:39 As for you, O house of Israel, thus saith the Lord Jehovah: Go ye, serve every one his idols, and hereafter also, if ye will not hearken unto me; but my holy name shall ye no more profane with your gifts, and with your idols.

(ASV) Ezekiel 36:20 And when they came unto the nations, whither they went, they profaned my holy name; in that men said of them, These are the people of Jehovah, and are gone forth out of his land. 21 But I had regard for my holy name, which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations, whither they went. 22 Therefore say unto the house of Israel, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: I do not this for your sake, O house of Israel, but for my holy name, which ye have profaned among the nations, whither ye went. 23 And I will sanctify my great name, which hath been profaned among the nations, which ye have profaned in the midst of them; and the nations shall know that I am Jehovah, saith the Lord Jehovah, when I shall be sanctified in you before their eyes.

(ASV) Ezekiel 39:7 And my holy name will I make known in the midst of my people Israel; neither will I suffer my holy name to be profaned any more: and the nations shall know that I am Jehovah,

(ASV) Amos 2:6 Thus saith Jehovah: …. 7 they that pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor, and turn aside the way of the meek: and a man and his father go unto the same maiden, to profane my holy name ….

I don’t believe you will find any scripture which refers to anyone but Jehovah (who is the Father) by the use of the term “holy name.”

So when Jesus prayed to the Father and praised His “holy (or ‘hallowed’) name,” he was also identifying the Father as Jehovah (YHWH).

For more on the essential knowledge of who God and Jesus really are (John 17:1, 3) see the KNOW study.


Note: Although Watchtower Society (WTS) research and scholarship is usually at least the equal of (and often superior to) that of other sources, I have tried to rely most heavily on other sources in Christendom itself (preferably trinitarian) or my own independent research to provide evidence disproving the trinitarian ‘proof’ being examined in this paper. The reason is, of course, that this paper is meant to provide evidence needed by non-Witnesses, and many of them will not accept anything written by the WTS. They truly believe it is false, even dishonest. Therefore some of the following information, all of which helps disprove specific trinitarian “proofs,” may be in disagreement with current WTS teachings in some specifics (especially when I have presented a number of alternates). Jehovah’s Witnesses should research the most recent WTS literature on the subject or scripture in question before using this information with others. – RDB.


Must Know Who God Is

(Sacrifice To God)

Israel was God’s Chosen people - most of them “knew” they were saved because of Jehovah’s favor. So why were so many of Jehovah’s chosen people destroyed by God at Sinai?

When Moses didn’t come back down the mountain [after 40 days - NIVSB f.n.], the people went to Aaron. “...make us a god to lead us, for this fellow Moses who brought us here from Egypt has disappeared; something must have happened to him.” ....

Aaron melted the gold [the Israelites gave him], then molded and tooled it into the form of a calf. The people exclaimed, “O Israel, this is the god that brought you out of Egypt!”

When Aaron saw how happy the people were about it, he built an altar before the calf and announced, “Tomorrow there will be a feast to Jehovah !“ - Ex. 32:1-6, Living Bible.

These were Jehovah’s very own people, but they knew Moses must be dead and, no one among the Israelites could replace him. Therefore, they selected another leader who represented Jehovah[1] to lead them. They were still giving the ultimate honor to Jehovah alone, they probably reasoned, but were merely letting him act through an intermediary who wouldn’t leave them or die like they thought Moses had. They were still faithful to Jehovah, they reasoned. They felt good about it. They were saved!

Was this thinking (which probably seemed so reasonable to them) really acceptable to God? Was their “faith” enough to save them? [2]

Jehovah told Moses what had happened and then said: “Now let me alone and my anger shall blaze out against them and destroy them all.” It was only through the intercession of the good, loyal Moses that all other Israelites were not destroyed. As it was there were still thousands who died that day. They were the ones who, even with a second opportunity, could not (or would not) discern the truth about the only true God!

* * * * *

Associated Press Religion Writer George W. Cornell wrote the following information as quoted in a feature article of the Ketchikan Daily News, October 21-22, 1989 issue.

(AP) - Southern Baptists and Roman Catholics, the nation’s two largest denominations, generally have been regarded as doctrinally far apart, but their scholars find they basically agree.

Despite varied terminology and some real differences, “we do share a basic understanding of what it means to be followers of Jesus Christ by the grace of God,” says their joint report.

After 10 years of periodic discussions, the Baptist-Catholic dialogue group, quoting Ephesians 4:5, concludes, “We not only confessed but experienced ‘One Lord, one faith and one baptism.’”

The Joint report admitted that the “primary source of our knowledge of God” is the Bible, but the most essential, basic agreement between these two churches at the opposite ends of the spectrum of Christendom was expressed this way:

Dealing with such topics as Scripture, salvation, spirituality, church and ministry, grace, missions and eschatology [end of time], the team agreed “that the ultimate authority and object of faith is the triune God [the Trinity]” - Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

* * * * *

Trinitarians and non-trinitarians both say that it is of essential importance (and means eternal life) to know exactly who their God is! But, of course, 99% of the churches of Christendom teach to their billion (or more) members that God is three persons (as in the above news article): God the Father, God the Son (Jesus), and God the Holy Spirit!

That is why, as trinitarian spokesman Dr. Walter Martin tells us, the National Council of Churches and the World Council of Churches have consistently denied membership to those religions which do not recognize the trinity and worship Jesus Christ as God. - p.14, The Kingdom of the Cults, 1985 ed.

Even the Ketchikan Ministerial Association (KMA) - whose extreme variance of teachings among its members (as found in nearly all Ministerial Associations) denies 1 Cor. 1:10, 13; and Eph. 4:5 anyway - still uses the TRINITY doctrine as the basis for membership or exclusion. - See The Ketchikan Daily News article by W. D. Haan - 18 Oct.1985. (Also see 29 Sept. 1985 article.) If a minister accepts the trinity doctrine (whether he ever actually teaches it openly or not), he is allowed membership in the KMA. The “cults” that the KMA attacks are religions that do not accept the trinity as officially and completely established by the Roman Church’s Council in 381 A. D.

The Roman Catholic Encyclopedia says:

“[The Trinity is] the central doctrine of the Christian religion.”

The Encyclopedia Americana, 1957, v. 14, p. 739:

“[The belief that Jesus is God] is thus the central doctrine of Christianity and ... vital to its existence.”

Trinitarian NT scholar Daniel B. Wallace agrees:

“the central doctrine of Christianity is that Jesus is God.” - p. 111, Selected Notes on the Syntax of New Testament Greek, Wallace, 3rd ed., 1981.

Prof. Arthur Bowser, a “born-again Christian,” writes:

All born-again believers assert it [the trinity] as a cornerstone of the Christian faith.” - p. 22, WEJWSK.

The well-known writer and defender of Christendom, Louis Cassels, writes in his 1965 book, What’s The Difference?, p. 34, that the belief that Jesus is “God Incarnate” is the very “linchpin of the Christian faith.”

And the Apostle John tells us that Jesus said in prayer to the Father in heaven:

“And this is eternal life: for men to know you, the only true God, and to know Jesus Christ, whom you sent.” - John 17:3, TEV.

And, conversely, the Apostle Paul tells us that Jesus will appear from heaven

“with a flaming fire, to punish those who do not know God .... They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction.” - 2 Thess. 1:7-9, TEV.

And in the OT we see the same thing

“And thou, Solomon my son, know thou the God of thy father, and serve him with a perfect heart and with a willing mind; for Jehovah searcheth all hearts, and understandeth all the imaginations of the thoughts: if thou seek him, he will be found of thee; but if thou forsake him, he will cast thee off for ever. - 1 Chronicles 28:9, ASV.

Seek ye Jehovah, all ye meek of the earth ... it may be that ye will be hid in the day of Jehovah’s anger.” - Zeph 2:3, ASV.

Dr. Walter Martin, well-known “cult-buster,” Baptist minister, and staunch defender of the “orthodox” trinity doctrine (and a key element in the KMA’s 1985 attack on “cults”), tells us:

“our main concern ought to be the centrality of the Christian faith, and that is the [trinitarian] doctrine of God. If you are right in every area of your theology and you are wrong on the doctrine of God, you are wrong enough to lose your soul for all eternity. This teaching [the trinity] .... is of primary importance.” - quoted from his commercial cassette tape recording, "Jehovah's Witnesses, Jesus Christ and the Trinity" (1975?) - cf. Kingdom of the Cults, 1985, pp. 84, 113.

With this in mind, then, we will look at Heb. 13:15 and Ex. 22:20. First, however, we should examine Hebrews 5 (and 8:1) for the necessary background.

Heb. 5:1, 4, 5, 10, and 8:1 -

“Every high priest is selected from among men and is appointed to represent them in matters related to God [compare 1 Tim. 2:5], to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins.” And, “No one takes this honor upon himself, he must be called by God, just as Aaron was. so Christ Jesus also did not take upon himself the glory of becoming a high priest. But ....” “...was designated by God to be high priest in the order of Melchizedek.” [And,] “The point of what we are saying is this: We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the majesty in heaven [as the Bible writer has been referring to Ps. 110 throughout the book of Hebrews in referring to Melchizedek and Christ (110:4), so also he is here referring to Ps. 110:1 - see most reference Bibles].” - NIV.

So the writer of the book of Hebrews has plainly identified Jesus as our high priest (who represents us and offers sacrifice for us to God) who sat down at the right hand of God.

Heb. 13:15 - “through [dia] Jesus [as our high priest], therefore, let us continually offer to God a sacrifice of praise - the fruit of lips that confess his name.” - NIV.

Exodus 22:20 -

“He that sacrificeth unto any gods, save unto Jehovah only, shall be utterly destroyed.” - American Standard Version (ASV) - See also The Living Bible; Young’s Literal Translation; Byington’s Bible in Living English; King James II Version; and NIV footnote.

Therefore, if we make the Christian “sacrifice of praise” to God (as we must) through Jesus our High Priest (as we must), we must make certain that it is only to the “only true God” (John 17:3) Jehovah, or we may expect the loss of eternal life (‘utterly destroyed’). - Ex. 22:20; 2 Thess. 1:8, 9; John 17:3.

This Christian “sacrifice of praise” to God can only be accomplished by one who has an accurate knowledge of God. Therefore, this “sacrifice” demonstrates one’s knowledge of God through “the fruit of lips that confess his name.” - Heb. 13:15 (compare Hosea 6:3, 6, ASV).

The Bible calls God’s angels “gods” (elohim, Heb.; theos, Gk)![3]

God himself called his human Israelite judges and kings “gods,”[4] and He even literally called Moses “a god” (Ex. 7:1, KJV and Interlinear Hebrew-English Bibles).

But certainly He will not allow us to render sacrifices (including the Christian “sacrifice of praise” to God) that are due the most high, only true God unto any of these “gods” no matter how righteous or praiseworthy these individuals may be!

Even if you became sincerely convinced by the scriptural “reasoning” and influence of all those around you that the righteous “god” Moses, for example, was equally God with the Father (Jehovah - Is. 63:16 ASV) and gave “a sacrifice of praise” to (not through) Moses (as being God), you would still be in line for “utter destruction”! It wouldn’t matter that Moses was a good, righteous person, a savior of Israel. Or that God chose him and worked through him. And it wouldn’t matter that you had been sincerely, whole-heartedly convinced by those you love and respect (Matt. 15:6-9, 14; Matt. 23:13, 15; Hosea 4:1, 6; Matt. 10:36-39).

Four times in his “sacrifice of praise” to God (Ps. 86) he (David) “confesses His name” (Jehovah’s). Notice this part of David’s sacrifice of praise to God:

“Give ear, O Jehovah, unto my prayer .... thou art great and doest wondrous things: thou art God alone. Teach me thy way, O Jehovah: I will walk in thy truth: Unite my heart to fear thy name. I will praise thee, O Lord my God, with my whole heart; and I will glorify thy name for evermore.” - Ps. 86:6, 10-12 ASV.

David’s sacrifice of praise in this Psalm tells us Jehovah alone is God. But is Jesus also that “Jehovah only,” that “God alone,” (Ex. 22:20) to whom we must sacrifice (Heb. 13:15)?

Psalm 110 itself tells us the answer. As the inspired writer of the book of Hebrews himself tells us: Jesus our High Priest (and the High Priest of God cannot be that God whom he serves) “is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty [Jehovah] in the heavens.” - Heb. 8:1, NRSV (or “at the place of greatest honor next to God himself” - Living Bible). This clearly refers to Psalm 110:1 (as even trinitarian reference Bibles show and as Heb. 10:12, 13 confirms).

Examining Ps. 110:1, we see that only one person is named Jehovah - and he is not Jesus who sits at the right hand of Jehovah!:

“Jehovah saith unto my Lord [Jesus], Sit thou at my right hand, Until I make thine enemies thy footstool.” - ASV.

Since we have a multitude of descriptions of the fulfillment of Ps. 110:1 in the NT, we should examine them all and see exactly who is Jehovah God and who is not.

Some background shows: The Most High God is Jehovah (YHWH) alone (Ps. 83:18). Jehovah is called the Father (but he is never called the Son, the Firstborn, the Only-begotten, the Christ or Messiah, etc.). Even many personal names of Israelites in the Bible actually said “Jehovah is the Father”: ‘Abijah,’ ‘Abiah,’ ‘Joab,’ etc. or “The Father is God”: ‘Abiel,’ ‘Eliab,’ etc. - but they never said anything remotely like ‘Jehovah is the Son’ (or the Messiah, the Firstborn, etc.)! - Deut. 32:6 ASV; Ps. 89:26, 27 (compare Heb. 1:5 and Ps. 2:7 ASV); Is. 63:16; Is. 64:8; Jer. 31:7, 9, ASV. - Also see the “Hallowed Be Thy Name” study.

The God of the Israelites has always been the Father alone (also known by his personal name of Jehovah) as shown above. It is also shown in the NT when the Jews say to Jesus: “’we have one Father, even God.’ Jesus said to them, ‘If God were your Father, you would love me, for I proceeded forth and have come from God, for I have not even come on my own initiative, but He sent Me.’” – NASB.

Jehovah (YHWH in OT Hebrew manuscripts), the only Most High God (and the only true God) is the Father of Jesus - Luke 1:32; John 17:1, 3 (“Father,.... This is eternal life: to know thee who alone art truly God” - NEB). The God of the heavenly resurrected Jesus is his Father - Ro. 15:6; 2 Cor. 11:31; Eph. 1:3, 17; Col. 1:3; 1 Pet. 1:3; Rev. 1:6; Rev. 3:5 (Obviously Jesus is not also the Father). Jesus’ Head is his GOD in the very same sense that man’s head is Jesus! - 1 Cor. 11:3.

Even the trinitarian The Encyclopedia of Religion admits that, in the Holy Scriptures at least,

“‘Father’ is not a title for the first person of the Trinity but a synonym for God.” - 1987, Vol. 15, p. 54.

Now let’s look at the descriptions of the fulfillment of Ps. 110:1 (Jesus is to sit at the right hand of Jehovah until his enemies are made his footstool):

(1) Jesus sat down at the right hand of God - Acts 2:33-36; Ro. 8:34; Heb. 10:12, 13; 1 Pet. 3:22.

(2) Jesus sat down at the right hand of the Father - Eph. 1:17, 20; Rev. 3:21.

Jesus is obviously not the same person whom he sat beside! He sat down at the right hand of a single individual who alone has the only personal name “Jehovah” and who also has the exclusive title “the Most High God” and is Jesus’ (and our) Father in heaven! Jesus is not even somehow equal to the person he sat beside. The popular (and trinitarian) The NIV Study Bible tells us in a footnote for Ps. 110:1,

right hand....thus he [Christ] is made second in authority to God himself. NT references to Jesus’ exaltation to this position are many (see Mk 16:19...Acts 2:33-36; ...Heb. 10:12-13).” [Compare the NIVSB footnote for Mark 16:19] - “right hand of God. A position of authority second only to God’s.” - The NIV Study Bible, Zondervan, 1985.

If Jesus is not Jehovah God (as all clear evidence proves he is not), and yet we continue giving “a sacrifice of praise” unto him as being Jehovah God (and that is precisely what is being done by any who accept or condone, even passively, the “orthodox” trinity doctrine), then we certainly do not know the only true God (John 17:1, 3 - cf, Jer. 10:10, ASV 1 Thess. 1:9, 10; 2 Thess. 1:8, 9) nor are we obeying the commands of God -

“He that sacrificeth unto any god [whether a righteous individual or a false god], save unto Jehovah only [through our High Priest, Jesus Christ - Heb. 13:15], shall be utterly destroyed.” -Exodus 22:20, ASV.

“...if thou shalt forget Jehovah thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I testify against you this day that ye shall surely perish.” - Deut. 8:19, ASV.

Therefore, even though we may have grown up in this trinitarian tradition and have been taught it, and even though we may sincerely believe with all our hearts (Jer. 17:9; Prov. 28:26, NASB; 2 Tim. 3:13-17) that we are God’s people, we may well finally discover “there is no truth ... nor knowledge of God in the land”; and “My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge” (Hosea 4:1, 6 ASV); and that we are not worshiping God “in TRUTH” as we MUST - John 4:24; and

“the nations come from the ends of the earth, and shall say, Our fathers have inherited nought but lies .... and they shall know that my name is Jehovah.” - Jer. 16:19, 21 ASV.

So, even though we may sincerely believe with the strongest faith possible that we are doing everything as Jesus commanded (and all those many around us whom we trust, like, and respect are doing the same), we may find that he rejects us, and that we are not among the few who have even found the narrow way that eventually “leadeth unto Life” - Matt. 7:21-23; Matt. 7:14. (No matter how sincerely you believe the liquid you are drinking is pure water, if your neighbor has put even one tiny drop of cyanide into it, you will die anyway.)

Of course, before you can find the narrow way that leads to eternal life, you must actively and diligently seek it through proper study -

“if thou seek her [knowledge, wisdom] as silver, and search for her as for hid treasures: then shalt thou understand the fear of Jehovah, and find the knowledge of God.” - Prov. 2:4, 5 ASV.

Conversely, of course, if 3 persons are really Jehovah, and we do not give the “sacrifice of praise” equally to all 3 equal members as being the Most High God and “confess his [their?] name[s],” then we still wouldn’t know God (Jn 17:3; 2 Thess. 1:8, 9) and might still suffer the tragic consequences of being “destroyed for lack of knowledge”!

All trinitarians, at this point, are professing publicly (by their willing membership in organizations that teach that particular “knowledge of God,” if nothing else) an acceptance of the trinity doctrine. Such an acceptance, whether open or not, is actually “a sacrifice of praise” to two other persons as being equally God with the Father.

At least one of us has to be tragically wrong! Shouldn’t every trinitarian search the scriptures together with us “as for hid treasures” to find the “knowledge of God”?


The only personal name of God (“Jehovah” - English form; or “Yehowah” or “Yahweh” - possible Hebrew form) has a meaning similar to “He Will Be” or “He Will Prove to Be.” Although “Jehovah” (like the only personal name of the Messiah, “Jesus”) has become the standard English transliteration for God’s only personal name, the transliterations “Yehowah“ or “Yahweh” may be closer to its actual Hebrew pronunciation (just as “Yeshua” is much closer to the way Christ actually pronounced his own name rather than the modern English form, “Jesus.”) - but see the PRONOUNCE study paper. For the usage “Yahweh” see the Roman Catholic Jerusalem Bible. The totally false translation “LORD,” however, found nearly 7000 times in most trinitarian translations has no justification and is not only not a “sacrifice of praise” to God’s name but is, in reality, a profanation of God’s name - Ezekiel 39:7, 8 RSV.

“Of primary significance is the name of Yahweh [Jehovah], which he himself made known in his revelation (Gen. 17:1; Exod. 3:14 [and 3:15]; 6:2...). One of the most fundamental and essential features of the biblical revelation is the fact that God is not without a name: he has a personal name, by which he can, and IS to be, invoked.” - p. 649, The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Vol. 2, Zondervan, 1986. (Also cf. p. 813, sect. d., New Bible Dictionary, 1984, Tyndale House Publ.)

“You shall not MISUSE the name of Yahweh [Jehovah] your God, for Yahweh will not leave unpunished anyone who MISUSES his name.” - Ex. 20:7, NJB (also NRSV, NIV, NEB, REB, GNB, NLV, ETRV).

Mercenary considerations and tradition (Mt 15:6-9) are cited by Bible translators as some of the reasons for this profaning of God’s name. This is typified by a letter from the Executive Secretary for the Committee of the popular New International Version. When asked why the NIV translators had actually removed God’s name in all 7000 instances where it ocurred in the original OT manuscripts and substituted 'LORD' in its place, Edwin H. Palmer, Th.D. responded:

“You are right that Jehovah is a distinctive name for God and ideally we should have used it. But we put 2 ¼ million dollars into this translation and a sure way of throwing that down the drain is to translate, for example, Psalm 23 as, ‘Yahweh [or Jehovah] is my shepherd.’ Immediately, we would have translated for nothing. Nobody would have used it. Oh, maybe you and a handful [of] others. But a Christian has to be also wise and practical. We are the victims of 350 years of the King James tradition. It is far better to get two million to read it - that is how many have bought it to date - and to follow the King James [tradition], than to have two thousand buy it and have the correct translation of Yahweh [or Jehovah]. . . . It was a hard decision, and many of our translators agree with you.”

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Jehovah ...: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.” - Ex. 3:15 ASV - also see The Living Bible; The New English Bible; Young’s Literal Translation of the Holy Bible; Modern Language Bible (MLB); Byington’s The Bible in Living English; King James II Version; Darby Translation; The New World Translation.

“Fill their faces with shame; that they may SEEK THY NAME .... yea let them be put to shame and perish: that men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth.” - Psalm 83:16, 17, 18 - King James Version (compare Young’s; Byington’s; King James II Version; ASV; NWT).

“O Jehovah..., thou art the God, even thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth .... that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that thou art Jehovah, even thou only” - Is. 37:15, 20 ASV (Hezekiah’s “sacrifice of praise” to God.)

Father,.... this is eternal life, that they know thee the only true God [‘Jehovah’ - Jer. 10:10 ASV] .... I have manifested thy name .... I have made known to them thy name [‘Jehovah’ - Ps. 22:22, 23 ASV]” - John 17:1, 3, 6, 26 RSV (Jesus’ “sacrifice of praise” to God).

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Note: Although Watchtower Society (WTS) research and scholarship is usually at least the equal of (and often superior to) that of other sources, I have tried to rely most heavily on other sources in Christendom itself (preferably trinitarian) or my own independent research to provide evidence disproving the trinitarian ‘proof’ being examined in this paper. The reason is, of course, that this paper is meant to provide evidence needed by non-Witnesses, and many of them will not accept anything written by the WTS. They truly believe it is false, even dishonest. Therefore some of the information in this paper, all of which helps disprove specific trinitarian “proofs,” may be in disagreement with current WTS teachings in some specifics. Jehovah’s Witnesses should research the most recent WTS literature on the subject or scripture in question before using this information with others. – RDB.



1. The New Bible Dictionary, 2nd ed., 1984, Tyndale House Publ., tells us that this golden calf was intended to either actually represent Jehovah or, possibly, to act as “a pedestal over which he was enthroned.” - p. 504. This is confirmed by Hastings’ A Dictionary of the Bible: “‘a molten calf’ is fashioned ... before which an altar is built, and to which, as a symbol of Jehovah ... divine honors are paid.” - p. 341, Vol. 1, Hendrickson Publ., 1988 printing.

2. “The whole narrative of the golden calf (Ex.32) reveals the extent of the contrast between the religion which stemmed from Mt. Sinai and the form of religion congenial to the unregenerate heart. These religions, we learn are incompatible .... it is a most significant thing that when Israel turned to idolatry it was always necessary to borrow the trappings from the pagan environment .... whenever the kings of Israel and Judah lapsed into idolatry, it was by means of borrowing and syncretism.” - New Bible Dictionary, p. 504, Tyndale House Publ.

So Israelites didn’t reject their God completely, but continued to “worship” him by adding (or reverting to) pagan customs in God’s name. They “made” these additions to God’s pure worship clean and holy to Jehovah (or so they believed). But it was never acceptable to Jehovah who demanded pure, unspotted worship.

3. - Ps. 8:5, NEB, REB, NAB (see Ps. 8:6 footnote in the St. Joseph ed.), JB, NJB. Also see NIVSB f.n. for Gen. 16:7; The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, p. 132, Vol. 1 and p. 1265, Vol. 2 (1984 printing); Young’s Concordance (Preface: “Hints and Helps to Bible Interpretation,” #65); Strong’s Concordance (#430, Heb.); The New Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew-English Lexicon, p. 43, Hendrickson Publ., 1979. Also Ps. 97:7 footnote in the NAB, St. Joseph ed., 1970.

4. Ps. 45:6; 82:6; John 10:34, 35; (and see NIVSB f.n.’s for Ps. 82:1; 45:6; and NAB, St Joseph ed., f.n. for Jn 10:34); also see p. 77, Vol. 2, Dr. William Barclay’s The Gospel of John (The Daily Study Bible Series); New Bible Dictionary (pp. 1133-34); Young’s (preface) and Strong’s (#430, Heb.) Concordances; Thayer, p. 288; Robertson (Word Pictures), v. 5, pp. 188-9.